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Open AccessArticle

Impact of Coffee, Wine, and Chocolate Consumption on Cognitive Outcome and MRI Parameters in Old Age

CIRD—Centre d’Imagerie Rive Droite, Rue Chantepoulet 21, 1201 Genève, Switzerland
Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology, Uppsala University, 751 85 Uppsala, Sweden
Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, 1205 Genève, Switzerland
Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, 1205 Genève, Switzerland
Division of Institutional Measures, Medical Direction, University Hospitals of Geneva, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil 4, 1205 Genève, Switzerland
Division of Geriatrics, Department of Internal Medicine, Rehabilitation and Geriatrics, University of Geneva, 1205 Genève, Switzerland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1391;
Received: 20 August 2018 / Revised: 16 September 2018 / Accepted: 26 September 2018 / Published: 1 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Caffeine and Coffee on Human Health)
Coffee, wine and chocolate are three frequently consumed substances with a significant impact on cognition. In order to define the structural and cerebral blood flow correlates of self-reported consumption of coffee, wine and chocolate in old age, we assessed cognition and brain MRI measures in 145 community-based elderly individuals with preserved cognition (69 to 86 years). Based on two neuropsychological assessments during a 3-year follow-up, individuals were classified into stable-stable (52 sCON), intermediate (61 iCON) and deteriorating-deteriorating (32 dCON). MR imaging included voxel-based morphometry (VBM), tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) and arterial spin labelling (ASL). Concerning behavior, moderate consumption of caffeine was related to better cognitive outcome. In contrast, increased consumption of wine was related to an unfavorable cognitive evolution. Concerning MRI, we observed a negative correlation of wine and VBM in bilateral deep white matter (WM) regions across all individuals, indicating less WM lesions. Only in sCON individuals, we observed a similar yet weaker association with caffeine. Moreover, again only in sCON individuals, we observed a significant positive correlation between ASL and wine in overlapping left parietal WM indicating better baseline brain perfusion. In conclusion, the present observations demonstrate an inverse association of wine and coffee consumption with cognitive performances. Moreover, low consumption of wine but also moderate to heavy coffee drinking was associated with better WM preservation and cerebral blood-flow notably in cognitively stable elders. View Full-Text
Keywords: caffeine; wine; chocolate; aging; cognition caffeine; wine; chocolate; aging; cognition
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Haller, S.; Montandon, M.-L.; Rodriguez, C.; Herrmann, F.R.; Giannakopoulos, P. Impact of Coffee, Wine, and Chocolate Consumption on Cognitive Outcome and MRI Parameters in Old Age. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1391.

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