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Open AccessArticle

Validation of Sentinel-3A/3B and Jason-3 Altimeter Wind Speeds and Significant Wave Heights Using Buoy and ASCAT Data

1
The First Institute of Oceanography, Ministry of Natural Resources, Qingdao 266061, China
2
National Satellite Ocean Application Service, Ministry of Natural Resources, Beijing 100081, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(13), 2079; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12132079
Received: 23 April 2020 / Revised: 17 June 2020 / Accepted: 17 June 2020 / Published: 29 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calibration and Validation of Satellite Altimetry)
This study validated wind speed (WS) and significant wave height (SWH) retrievals from the Sentinel-3A/3B and Jason-3 altimeters for the period of data beginning 31 October 2019 (to 18 September 2019 for Jason-3) using moored buoy data and satellite Meteorological Operational Satellite Program (MetOp-A/B) Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) data. The spatial and temporal scales of the collocated data were 25 km and 30 min, respectively. The statistical metrics of root mean square error (RMSE), bias, correlation coefficient (R), and scatter index (SI) were used to validate the WS and SWH accuracy. Validation of WS against moored buoy data indicated errors of 1.19 m/s, 1.13 m/s and 1.29 m/s for Sentinel-3A, Sentinel-3B and Jason-3, respectively. The accuracy of Sentinel-3A/3B WS is better than that of Jason-3. All three altimeters underestimated WS slightly in comparison with the buoy data. Errors in WS at different speeds or SWHs increased slightly as WS or SWH increased. Over time, the accuracy of the Jason-3 altimeter-derived WS improved, whereas that of Sentinel-3A showed no temporal dependence. The WSs of the three altimeters were compared with ASCAT wind data for validation purposes over the global ocean without in situ measurements. On average, the WSs of the three altimeters were lower in comparison with the ASCAT data. The accuracy of the three altimeters was found to be consistent and stable at low/medium speeds but it decreased when the WS exceeded 15 m/s. Validations of SWH against buoy wave data indicated that the accuracy of Jason-3 SWH was better than that of Sentinel-3A/3B. However, the accuracy of all three altimeters decreased when the SWH exceeded 4 m. The accuracy of Sentinel-3A and Jason-3 SWH was temporally stable, whereas that of Sentinel-3B SWH improved over time. Analyses of SWH accuracy as a function of wave period showed that the Jason-3 altimeter was better than the Sentinel-3A/3B altimeters for long-period ocean waves. Generally, the accuracy of WS and SWH data derived by the Sentinel-3A/3B and Jason-3 altimeters satisfies their mission requirements. Overall, the accuracy of WS (SWH) derived by Sentinel-3A/3B (Jason-3) is better than that retrieved by Jason-3 (Sentinel-3A/3B). View Full-Text
Keywords: Sentinel-3; Jason-3; altimeter; wind speed; significant wave height; data validation Sentinel-3; Jason-3; altimeter; wind speed; significant wave height; data validation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Yang, J.; Zhang, J.; Jia, Y.; Fan, C.; Cui, W. Validation of Sentinel-3A/3B and Jason-3 Altimeter Wind Speeds and Significant Wave Heights Using Buoy and ASCAT Data. Remote Sens. 2020, 12, 2079.

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