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Open AccessArticle

Photogrammetric Solution for Analysis of Out-Of-Plane Movements of a Masonry Structure in a Large-Scale Laboratory Experiment

1
Department of Cartographic and Land Engineering, High Polytechnic School of Ávila, University of Salamanca, Hornos Caleros 50, 05003 Ávila, Spain
2
Department of Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Delft University of Technology, 2628 CN Delft, The Netherlands
3
Agronomy Department, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47906, USA
4
Department of Materials, Mechanics, Management & Design (3Md), Delft University of Technology, 2628 CN Delft, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(16), 1871; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11161871
Received: 27 May 2019 / Revised: 4 August 2019 / Accepted: 8 August 2019 / Published: 10 August 2019
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Abstract

This paper proposes a photogrammetric procedure able to determine out-of-plane movements experienced by a masonry structure subjected to a quasi-static cyclic test. The method tracks the movement of circular targets by means of a coarse-to-fine strategy. These targets were captured by means of a photogrammetric network, made up of four cameras optimized following the precepts of a zero-, first-, and second-order design. The centroid of each circular target was accurately detected for each image using the Hough transform, a sub-pixel edge detector based on the partial area effect, and a non-linear square optimization strategy. The three-dimensional (3D) coordinates of these targets were then computed through a photogrammetric bundle adjustment considering a self-calibration model of the camera. To validate the photogrammetric method, measurements were carried out in parallel to an ongoing test on a full-scale two-story unreinforced masonry structure (5.4 × 5.2 × 5.4-m) monitored with more than 200 contact sensors. The results provided by the contact sensors during one of the load phases were compared with those obtained by the proposed approach. According to this accuracy assessment, the method was able to determine the out-of-plane displacement during the quasi-static cyclic test with a sub-pixel accuracy of 0.58. View Full-Text
Keywords: target tracking; network design and adjustment; principal component analysis; out-of-plane movement; full-scale test target tracking; network design and adjustment; principal component analysis; out-of-plane movement; full-scale test
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sánchez-Aparicio, L.J.; Herrero-Huerta, M.; Esposito, R.; Roel Schipper, H.; González-Aguilera, D. Photogrammetric Solution for Analysis of Out-Of-Plane Movements of a Masonry Structure in a Large-Scale Laboratory Experiment. Remote Sens. 2019, 11, 1871.

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