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Open AccessArticle

The Global Spatiotemporal Distribution of the Mid-Tropospheric CO2 Concentration and Analysis of the Controlling Factors

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State Key Laboratory of Desert and Oasis Ecology, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 818, South Beijing Road, Urumqi 830011, China
2
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039, China
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Department of Geography, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281, S8, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium
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Sino-Belgian Joint Laboratory for Geo-Information, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Urumqi 830011, China
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Sino-Belgian Joint Laboratory for Geo-Information, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281, S8, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium
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Research Center for Ecology and Environment of Central Asia, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 818, South Beijing Road, Urumqi 830011, China
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Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Water and Soil Conservation and Environmental Protection, College of Resources and Environment, Linyi University, Linyi 276000, China
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Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen 518055, China
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Beijing Research Institute of Automation for Machinery Industry CO., LTD, Beijing 100120, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(1), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11010094
Received: 18 October 2018 / Revised: 26 December 2018 / Accepted: 3 January 2019 / Published: 8 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing of Air Quality)
The atmospheric infrared sounder (AIRS) provides a robust and accurate data source to investigate the variability of mid-tropospheric CO2 globally. In this paper, we use the AIRS CO2 product and other auxiliary data to survey the spatiotemporal distribution characteristics of mid-tropospheric CO2 and the controlling factors using linear regression, empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs), geostatistical analysis, and correlation analysis. The results show that areas with low mid-tropospheric CO2 concentrations (20°S–5°N) (384.2 ppm) are formed as a result of subsidence in the atmosphere, the presence of the Amazon rainforest, and the lack of high CO2 emission areas. The areas with high mid-tropospheric CO2 concentrations (30°N–70°N) (382.1 ppm) are formed due to high CO2 emissions. The global mid-tropospheric CO2 concentrations increased gradually (the annual average rate of increase in CO2 concentration is 2.11 ppm/a), with the highest concentration occurring in spring (384.0 ppm) and the lowest value in winter (382.5 ppm). The amplitude of the seasonal variation retrieved from AIRS (average: 1.38 ppm) is consistent with that of comprehensive observation network for trace gases (CONTRAIL), but smaller than the surface ground stations, which is related to altitude and coverage. These results contribute to a comprehensive understanding of the spatiotemporal distribution of mid-tropospheric CO2 and related mechanisms. View Full-Text
Keywords: mid-tropospheric CO2; AIRS; spatiotemporal distribution; station observations; atmospheric circulation mid-tropospheric CO2; AIRS; spatiotemporal distribution; station observations; atmospheric circulation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Cao, L.; Chen, X.; Zhang, C.; Kurban, A.; Qian, J.; Pan, T.; Yin, Z.; Qin, X.; Ochege, F.U.; Maeyer, P.D. The Global Spatiotemporal Distribution of the Mid-Tropospheric CO2 Concentration and Analysis of the Controlling Factors. Remote Sens. 2019, 11, 94.

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