- freely available
Sustainability 2017, 9(7), 1217; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9071217
2. Theoretical Framework for Low-Carbon Transport Policy Analysis
3. Methodology and Materials
4. Results: Low-Carbon Transport Policy Components
Conflicts of Interest
Appendix A. Reference Table for ASI Policies and Measures Analysis, as Used in Stocktaking Reports
|Strategy||Policy Instrument Type||Policy/Measure||Strategy||Policy Instrument Type||Policy/Measure|
|Avoid||Infrastructure||Telecommunications||Improve||Economic||CO2 based vehicle taxation|
|Information||Telecommuting||Economic||Tax rebates for efficient vehicles|
|Regulatory||Transport—land use planning integration||Regulatory||Import restrictions for inefficient vehicles|
|Avoid, shift||Regulatory||Transit-oriented development||Economic||Vehicle scrapping|
|Economic||Parking pricing||Regulatory||Fuel economy/CO2 emission standard|
|Regulatory||Reduce available parking space||Regulatory||Inspection and maintenance|
|Economic||Road pricing, congestion charging||Regulatory||Speed limits/speed management|
|Regulatory||Vehicle use restrictions (e.g., number plate schemes)||Regulatory||Low-emission zones|
|Regulatory||Vehicle sales limits||Information||Eco-driving|
|Regulatory||Traffic calming, access restrictions||Information||Car labelling|
|Regulatory||High-occupancy vehicle lanes||Regulatory||Traffic management|
|Regulatory||Street design standards||Economic||EV tax incentives|
|Shift||Infrastructure||Bike sharing||Economic||Hybrid vehicle incentives|
|Regulatory||NMT friendly building regulations||Economic||Electric two-wheeler incentives|
|Regulatory||Design standards for intermodal integration||Economic||EV programmes|
|Information||Real-time public transport information||Economic||Biofuel incentives|
|Information||Campaigns promoting public transport/NMT||Economic||CNG/LPG incentives|
|Regulatory||Master planning for public transport/NMT||Regulatory||Emission standards|
|Regulatory||Bus route optimisation||Information||Clean vehicle campaigns|
|Regulatory||Bus management reform||Infrastructure||Charging infrastructure|
|Infrastructure||Bus prioritisation measures||Regulatory||Biofuel blending standards|
|Regulatory||Integrated ticketing||Economic||Fleet renovation programme|
|Infrastructure||NMT infrastructure||Economic||Clean bus fleet programmes|
|Infrastructure||Park and ride||Avoid, shift, improve||Infrastructure||Intelligent transport systems|
|Infrastructure||Urban rail infrastructure||Economic||Fuel taxation/subsidy reduction|
|Infrastructure||Bus rapid transit||Economic||Vehicle taxation|
|Economic||Public transport fare policy|
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|High-Level Abstraction||Programme Level Operationalisation||Specific on-the-Ground Measures|
|Policy focus||Policy ends or aims||Goals||Objectives||Settings|
|What general types of ideas govern policy development?||What does policy formally aim to address?||What are the specific on-the-ground requirements of policy?|
|Policy means or tools||Instrument logic||Mechanisms||Calibrations|
|What general norms guide implementation preferences?||What specific types of instruments are utilised?||What are the specific ways in which the instrument is used?|
|CO2 emissions from transport||Mt||b,c||2010||121.4 b (2012)||23-36 c||61.1 b||28.0 b|
|tCO2/capita (transport)||tonnes||2010||0.49 (2012)||0.25–0.4||0.91||0.32|
|Motorisation index||#vehicles/1000 capita||d,e,f||2010||344 f||75 e||310 d||364 d|
|Annual passenger vehicle fleet growth||%||d,e,f||2000–2010||10.4 f%||6 e%||8 e%||16 d%|
|Share two-wheelers in passenger vehicle fleet||%||d,g||2012||87 d%||55 g%||61 g%||95 d%|
|Domestic car/motorcycle production||Million units/annum||h||2015||1.1/5.7||0.1/0.8||1.9/1.8||0.2/2.9|
|Fuel prices (diesel/petrol)||USD/litre||i||2014||0.80/0.93||0.82/1.05||0.90/1.29||0.91/1.04|
|Goals||Vision/theme in medium term development plan a||Realisation of an Indonesia that is prosperous, democratic and just||Pursuit of inclusive growth||A happy society with equity, fairness and resilience under the philosophy of a Sufficiency Economy||A modern, industrialised country by 2020|
|Visions relevant to sustainable transport||“to develop transport infrastructures which is environmental friendly and takes into account carrying capacity through climate change mitigation and adaptation as well as improving safety and quality of environment” b||To achieve “a safe, secure, efficient, viable, competitive, dependable, integrated, environmentally sustainable and people-oriented Philippine transportation system.” d||An efficient transport system that is environment-friendly and appropriate for the development of sufficient and sustainable socio-economic infrastructure for Thailand f||Transport Development Strategy refers to “modern and high-quality system with reasonable cost, safety, reducing environmental pollution and energy saving by application of advanced transport technology, especially multi-modal transportation and logistics.”|
|Objectives||Selected objectives in transport sector documents||Reduce GHG emissions; Promote public transport and multimodal transport; create jobs; Limit the growth of the ownership and use of private vehicles b||Fuel diversification, energy self-sufficiency; Promote public transport||Reduce GHG emissions; Promote public transport;|
Increase energy efficiency;
Promote electric cars
|Limit motorization; Promote public transport; Promote renewable and clean energy and energy efficient vehicles|
|Settings||Selected specific targets in transport plans and strategies|
|Short (2020) to medium (2030) term quantitative scenarios are developed in the NDCs and other strategies, however no comprehensive government scenario on long-term low-carbon transport has been found.|
|Instrument logic||Salient features of plans and strategies||Involvement of private sector participation and restructuring in the business sectors in accordance with the demands of the domestic market and the global market as well as in the spirit of free trade b||National Climate Change Framework Strategy calls to “formally adopt a socially equitable and integrated land-use and transport planning processes”||EV promotion plan 2015–2036 includes research, development, production and incentives for vehicles and charging infrastructure||“greening lifestyle” and promotion of “thrifty energy consumption of citizens’ lifestyles” h|
|Use of ASI in transport plans and strategies||ASI used as organising principle in the 2010 Sectoral Climate Change Roadmap||ASI implicit in measures in (e)||ASI mentioned in (f) but not explicitly used||ASI explicitly used in Environmentally Sustainable Transport Strategy|
|Mechanisms||Avoid||Number plate restrictions; Electronic road pricing in discussion||Number plate restrictions||Several measures being studied||Vehicle restriction measures in discussion|
|Parking management and land-use—transport integration limited; fuel prices relatively low|
|Shift||Greater Jakarta inter-provincial transport agency established||Public transport reform planned; integrated ticketing||Integrated ticketing; Initial cycling policies||Bus management reform in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC)|
|Rail (urban and inter-urban) and bus rapid transit being developed; non-motorised transport (NMT) not prioritised|
|Improve||Incentives for small cars||Electric jeepney programme||Fuel economy incentives; EV production promotion||Fuel economy policies|
|Biofuel blending targets; alternative fuels for public and informal transport; Euro standards for vehicles and fuels|
Missing: promotion of electric two-wheelers, hybrid buses
|International climate change instruments i||NAMA: sustainable urban transport programme||NAMA: improvement of public transport system and vehicles; CTF: electric jeepneys||NAMA: urban public and non-motorised transport||NAMA: promotion of low-carbon buses and public transport improvement; CTF co-finances metro in Hanoi|
|No Clean Development Mechanism projects in transport|
|Calibrations (examples)||Transport Demand Management||Odd-even number plate scheme in Jakarta||Prohibition of vehicles based on last digit of number plate for certain week-days week Manila||Transit-oriented development piloted in Bangkok||Congestion pricing scheme in HCMC under discussion|
|Cycling||Weekly car-free day in multiple cities; limited infrastructure||Weekly car-free day in Pasig City in Metro Manila; limited bike lane construction||Budget (USD 50 million) for bike lanes in 2015; bike sharing system; road design guidelines||No policy implemented yet|
|Fuel economy of new cars j||Low Cost Green Car Program: zero luxury sales tax for <1200 cc vehicles with 20 km/litre or 128 gCO2/km||Labelling scheme planned; fuel efficiency standards and incentives proposed||Labelling; CO2-based excise tax (pick-ups excluded); incentives for “eco-cars” (<23 km/L)||Labelling and voluntary standards based on vehicle weight classes in place, mandatory standard planned|
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