Next Article in Journal
Mobility of Workers and Population between Old and New Capital Cities Using the Interregional Economic Model
Previous Article in Journal
Cleaner Production Applied in a Small Furniture Industry in Brazil: Addressing Focused Changes in Design to Reduce Waste
Article Menu
Issue 10 (October) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sustainability 2017, 9(10), 1870;

Is Strategic Proactivity a Driver of an Environmental Strategy? Effects of Innovation and Internationalization Leadership

Department of Management, University of Zaragoza, 50005 Zaragoza, Spain
Department of Marketing, University of Zaragoza, 50005 Zaragoza, Spain
Department of Economy, University of Alcalá, 28802 Alcala de Henares, Spain
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 September 2017 / Revised: 15 October 2017 / Accepted: 16 October 2017 / Published: 18 October 2017
Full-Text   |   PDF [299 KB, uploaded 20 October 2017]


This study analyses strategic proactivity as a driving factor in the implementation of an advanced environmental strategy in a firm. Strategic proactivity is defined as a firm’s tendency to initiate voluntary changes instead of reacting to events in the environment and according to previous literature, can be interpreted as a combination of internal factors that characterise a firm’s business strategy as that of a prospector firm. In this study, we measured this through innovation, with two variables related to the firm’s entire production cycle: R&D expenditure and patents. However, we also considered two more strategic proactivity indicators: innovation proactivity and internationalisation proactivity. These two proactivity variables take into account the innovative and international actions of the firms, going beyond the actions usually taken by firms in the same sector. Using panel data methodology, we obtained results that show that firms who invest in R&D and patent their innovations achieve more advanced positions in their environmental strategies. Empirical evidence also shows that firms with a greater innovation effort throughout the production cycle (product, process, organisation and marketing) than their competitors also attain more advanced positions (proactivity) in environmental matters. In other words, innovation proactivity is a driver of environmental strategy. In relation to internationalization, the results also showed that firms that operate in a larger geographical area than their competitors adapt to the most demanding environmental legislation, placing them in a position of environmental leadership in their respective sectors. The inclusion of internationalization as an indicator of strategic proactivity, the measurement of proactivity variables and the correction of firms’ specific unobserved aspects are some of this paper’s contributions. View Full-Text
Keywords: environmental strategy; innovation; internationalization; leadership; strategic proactivity environmental strategy; innovation; internationalization; leadership; strategic proactivity
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Suarez-Perales, I.; Garces-Ayerbe, C.; Rivera-Torres, P.; Suarez-Galvez, C. Is Strategic Proactivity a Driver of an Environmental Strategy? Effects of Innovation and Internationalization Leadership. Sustainability 2017, 9, 1870.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Sustainability EISSN 2071-1050 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top