Next Article in Journal
Hurdles to Forest Friendly Farming: Sustainability Lessons from Southeastern Mexico
Next Article in Special Issue
Virtual Sustainability
Previous Article in Journal
Sustainable Zero-Valent Metal (ZVM) Water Treatment Associated with Diffusion, Infiltration, Abstraction, and Recirculation
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sustainability 2010, 2(9), 3110-3128;

Designing a Sustainable Future through Creation of North America’s only International Wildlife Refuge

Detroit River International Wildlife Refuge, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 9311 Groh Road, Grosse Ile, MI 48138, USA
Sustainable Scotland Network, Wallace House, 17-21 Maxwell Place, Stirling, FK8 1JU, Scotland, UK
Water Science and Technology, Environment Canada, Canada Centre for Inland Waters, 867 Lakeshore Road, P.O. Box 5050, Burlington, Ontario L7R 4A6, Canada
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 July 2010 / Revised: 9 September 2010 / Accepted: 13 September 2010 / Published: 21 September 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Futures)
PDF [720 KB, uploaded 24 February 2015]


In 2001, the Detroit River International Wildlife Refuge was established based on the principles of conservation and sustainability. The refuge has grown from 49.1 ha in 2001 to over 2,300 ha in 2010. Agreement on a compelling vision for a sustainable future was necessary to rally stakeholders and move them forward together. Project examples include: lake sturgeon and common tern restoration; soft shoreline engineering; ecotourism; sustainable redevelopment of a brownfield; and indicator reporting. Key success factors include: a consensus long-term vision; a multi-stakeholder process that achieves cooperative learning; strong coupling of monitoring/research programs with management; implementing actions consistent with adaptive management; measuring and celebrating successes; quantifying benefits; building capacity; and developing the next generation of sustainability practitioners and entrepreneurs. View Full-Text
Keywords: sustainable development; adaptive management; international wildlife refuge sustainable development; adaptive management; international wildlife refuge

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Hartig, J.H.; Robinson, R.S.; Zarull, M.A. Designing a Sustainable Future through Creation of North America’s only International Wildlife Refuge. Sustainability 2010, 2, 3110-3128.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Sustainability EISSN 2071-1050 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top