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Article

Removal of Reactive Black 5 Dye by Banana Peel Biochar and Evaluation of Its Phytotoxicity on Tomato

1
Amity Institute of Biotechnology, Amity University Uttar Pradesh, Noida 201 313, India
2
Division of Environmental Technology, School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang 11800, Malaysia
3
Chemistry Department, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
4
Department of Biological and Chemical Engineering, Aarhus University, Nørrebrogade 44, 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Salvatore Cataldo
Sustainability 2022, 14(7), 4176; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14074176
Received: 18 February 2022 / Revised: 18 March 2022 / Accepted: 29 March 2022 / Published: 31 March 2022
Removal of Reactive Black 5 (RB5) dye from an aqueous solution was studied by its adsorption on banana peel biochars (BPBs). The factors affecting RB5 dye adsorption such as pH, exposure time, RB5 dye concentration, adsorbent dose, particle size and temperature were investigated. Maximum 97% RB5 dye removal was obtained at pH 3 with 75 mg/L adsorbate concentration by banana peel biochars. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize the adsorbent material. The data of equilibrium were analyzed by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The experimental results were best reflected by Langmuir isotherm with maximum 7.58 mg/g adsorption capacity. Kinetic parameters were explored and pseudo-second order was found suitable which reflected that rate of adsorption was controlled by physisorption. Thermodynamic variables exhibited that the sorption process was feasible, spontaneous, and exothermic in nature. Banana peel biochar showed excellent regeneration efficiency up to five cycles of successive adsorption-desorption. Banana peel biochar maintained >38% sorption potential of RB5 dye even after five cycles of adsorption-desorption. The phytotoxic study exhibited the benign nature of BPB-treated RB5 dye on tomato seeds. View Full-Text
Keywords: banana peel biochar; reactive black 5; isotherm; kinetic; phytotoxicity; tomato banana peel biochar; reactive black 5; isotherm; kinetic; phytotoxicity; tomato
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kapoor, R.T.; Rafatullah, M.; Siddiqui, M.R.; Khan, M.A.; Sillanpää, M. Removal of Reactive Black 5 Dye by Banana Peel Biochar and Evaluation of Its Phytotoxicity on Tomato. Sustainability 2022, 14, 4176. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14074176

AMA Style

Kapoor RT, Rafatullah M, Siddiqui MR, Khan MA, Sillanpää M. Removal of Reactive Black 5 Dye by Banana Peel Biochar and Evaluation of Its Phytotoxicity on Tomato. Sustainability. 2022; 14(7):4176. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14074176

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kapoor, Riti Thapar, Mohd Rafatullah, Masoom Raza Siddiqui, Moonis Ali Khan, and Mika Sillanpää. 2022. "Removal of Reactive Black 5 Dye by Banana Peel Biochar and Evaluation of Its Phytotoxicity on Tomato" Sustainability 14, no. 7: 4176. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14074176

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