# An Optimal Dispatching Model for Integrated Energy Microgrid Considering the Reliability Principal–Agent Contract

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Energy Reliability Principal-Agent Model

#### 2.1. Reliability Principal-Agent Function

#### 2.2. Reliability Principal-Agent Constraint

## 3. IEM Optimal Dispatching Model Considering Reliability Principal-Agent Contact

#### 3.1. Objective

#### 3.2. Energy Dispatching Constraints

#### 3.2.1. Economic Constraints

#### 3.2.2. Operational Constraints for Normal State

- Energy balance constraint

- Multi energy supply constraints

#### 3.3. Energy Reliability Model

#### 3.3.1. Component State Probability

#### 3.3.2. Energy System Reliability Assessment

## 4. Bi-Level Cooperative Gaming Model

#### 4.1. User-Side Model in the Lower Level

#### 4.2. Frameworks of Cooperative Gaming

## 5. Solution of Bi-Level Optimization

## 6. Case Study

#### 6.1. Comparison of Cost and Benefits of Reliability Improving

#### 6.2. Comparing Reliability of Multiple Types of Users during Peak and Valley Times

#### 6.3. Comparison of Energy Dispatching Structure under Normal Operation Scenario

#### 6.4. Reliability Transaction in the Incentive Mode

#### 6.5. Sensitivity Analysis on IEO Cost with user’s Energy-Using Benefits

## 7. Conclusions

- (1)
- In terms of economy, on the one hand, the model effectively reduces the energy dispatching cost of IEO, because of the improvement of reliability in the system, the space for low-price sustainable energy consumption is enhanced; on the other hand, the loss of energy supply interruption for IEUs is targeted, and their energy utilization are improved to different degrees, which realizes the win–win situation of multiple participants in the cooperative game.
- (2)
- In terms of system reliability, the model optimizes the allocation of reliability resources by the market mechanism, which significantly improves the system reliability with low cost on IEO; each type of user within the IEM also achieves a personalized improvement of energy reliability in the time dimension.
- (3)
- In terms of energy structure, the model can effectively improve the sustainable energy consumption capacity in the IEM, and promote the energy structure developing in the direction of low carbon and environmental friendliness.

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 10.**The sensitivity analysis on IEO reliability improving cost with user’s energy-use benefits.

Reliability Improving Cost (USD) | Users’ Improving Gain (USD) | IEO Improving Profit (USD) | |
---|---|---|---|

Electricity | 224,221 | 340,208 | 525,182 |

Heating | 175,871 | 509,806 | |

Total | 400,092 | 850,014 |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Chen, B.; Chen, Y.; Li, B.; Zhu, Y.; Zhang, C.
An Optimal Dispatching Model for Integrated Energy Microgrid Considering the Reliability Principal–Agent Contract. *Sustainability* **2022**, *14*, 7645.
https://doi.org/10.3390/su14137645

**AMA Style**

Chen B, Chen Y, Li B, Zhu Y, Zhang C.
An Optimal Dispatching Model for Integrated Energy Microgrid Considering the Reliability Principal–Agent Contract. *Sustainability*. 2022; 14(13):7645.
https://doi.org/10.3390/su14137645

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Chen, Biyun, Yanni Chen, Bin Li, Yun Zhu, and Chi Zhang.
2022. "An Optimal Dispatching Model for Integrated Energy Microgrid Considering the Reliability Principal–Agent Contract" *Sustainability* 14, no. 13: 7645.
https://doi.org/10.3390/su14137645