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Review

Highlighting the Role of Universally Available and Innate Immune Cell Counts in Acute Ischemic Stroke: A Scoping Review

1
School of Psychology and Public Health, La Trobe University, Melbourne, VIC 3083, Australia
2
Department of Neurology, Western Health & University Melbourne, AIMSS, Level Three, WHCRE, Sunshine Hospital, St Albans, VIC 3021, Australia
3
Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Rajarata, Saliyapura AD 50008, Sri Lanka
4
Faculty of Social and Political Sciences, Tbilisi State University, Tbilisi, GA 0179, USA
5
Department Global Health Economics & Policy, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Kragujevac, 34000 Kragujevac, Serbia
6
Institute of Comparative Economic Studies, Hosei University, Tokyo 102-8160, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Michael A. Talias
Sustainability 2021, 13(7), 4069; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13074069
Received: 11 February 2021 / Revised: 29 March 2021 / Accepted: 2 April 2021 / Published: 6 April 2021
Stroke is one of the leading causes of adult disability and the second leading cause of death worldwide. The immune system actively participates in the pathobiological process of acute ischemic stroke (AIS), during the index event and the repair process. Research on neurovascular inflammation has created a renewed interest in the use of easily available biomarkers reflective of innate and adaptive immunological changes with potential diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic implications particularly in AIS. The current scoping review aimed to assess the significance the neutrophil to lymphocyte (NLR) in AIS and its related complications and explore their association with post-stroke recovery trajectory. The Arksey and O’Malley methodological framework was employed to review the published papers on the neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and AIS in late November 2020. Only studies published in English from 2000–2020 were included in this scoping review. Fifty-three published papers were reviewed. This review’s key finding is that a canonical inflammatory response occurs in the hyperacute, acute, subacute, and chronic stages of stroke. An excessive circulating innate immune cells (neutrophils) and reduced circulating adaptive immune cells (lymphocytes) are associated with poorer outcomes during the acute interventions as well as the recovery trajectory. This scoping review’s findings highlights the utility of a systems biology-based approach in stroke care. View Full-Text
Keywords: acute ischemic stroke; neuroinflammation; neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio; NLR acute ischemic stroke; neuroinflammation; neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio; NLR
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wijeratne, T.; Sales, C.; Menon, R.; Karimi, L.; Jakovljevic, M. Highlighting the Role of Universally Available and Innate Immune Cell Counts in Acute Ischemic Stroke: A Scoping Review. Sustainability 2021, 13, 4069. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13074069

AMA Style

Wijeratne T, Sales C, Menon R, Karimi L, Jakovljevic M. Highlighting the Role of Universally Available and Innate Immune Cell Counts in Acute Ischemic Stroke: A Scoping Review. Sustainability. 2021; 13(7):4069. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13074069

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wijeratne, Tissa, Carmela Sales, Rohit Menon, Leila Karimi, and Mihajlo Jakovljevic. 2021. "Highlighting the Role of Universally Available and Innate Immune Cell Counts in Acute Ischemic Stroke: A Scoping Review" Sustainability 13, no. 7: 4069. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13074069

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