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Social Inclusion, Innovation and Food Security in West Africa

School of Public Administration, Xi’an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi’an 710000, China
Business Studies Department, Bahria Business School, Bahria University, Karachi Campus 75260, Pakistan
Department of Economics and Development Studies, Covenant University, Ota 112212, Nigeria
Centre for Economic Policy and Development Research (CEPDeR), Covenant University, Ota 112212, Nigeria
Department of Economics, Landmark University, Omu-Aran 251101, Nigeria
School of Statistics, Jiangxi University of Finance and Economics, Nanchang 330013, China
School of Economics and Management, Foshan University, Foshan 528000, China
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Sara González García
Sustainability 2021, 13(5), 2619;
Received: 19 January 2021 / Revised: 15 February 2021 / Accepted: 24 February 2021 / Published: 1 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Food)
To achieve the United Nations Sustainable Goals (SDGs) by 2030, especially goal 2 (SDG-2) which is to “end hunger, achieve sustainable food security, improved nutrition and promote agriculture” this study examines how innovation and social inclusion affect food security in West Africa. The study applies the system Generalised Method of Moments (GMM) on a panel data of 15 West African countries for the period 2005–2018. The result from system GMM shows that innovation and social inclusion are drivers of food security. The implication of this is that increased level of social inclusion and innovation in West African may increase the level of food security by about 41.5% and 13.6% respectively. Therefore, the study concludes that to feed the growing African population, social inclusion should be improved to mitigate risk, vulnerability and socioeconomic shocks faced by farming households. In addition, innovation in agricultural should be enhanced to drive productivity, thereby leading to a sustainable food security. View Full-Text
Keywords: food security; sustainability; innovation; social protection; social inclusion; SDG-2 food security; sustainability; innovation; social protection; social inclusion; SDG-2
MDPI and ACS Style

Khalid Anser, M.; Iqbal Godil, D.; Aderounmu, B.; Onabote, A.; Osabohien, R.; Ashraf, J.; Yao-Ping Peng, M. Social Inclusion, Innovation and Food Security in West Africa. Sustainability 2021, 13, 2619.

AMA Style

Khalid Anser M, Iqbal Godil D, Aderounmu B, Onabote A, Osabohien R, Ashraf J, Yao-Ping Peng M. Social Inclusion, Innovation and Food Security in West Africa. Sustainability. 2021; 13(5):2619.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Khalid Anser, Muhammad, Danish Iqbal Godil, Busayo Aderounmu, Ademola Onabote, Romanus Osabohien, Junaid Ashraf, and Michael Yao-Ping Peng. 2021. "Social Inclusion, Innovation and Food Security in West Africa" Sustainability 13, no. 5: 2619.

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