Air transportation systems are an important part of the critical infrastructure in our connected world. Accordingly, a better understanding and improvements in the resilience of the overall air transportation system are essential to the well-functioning of our society and overall sustainability of human beings. In the literature, network science is increasingly used to better understand the resilience dynamics of air transportation. Given the wide application of tools for network science and the importance of designing resilient air transportation systems, a rich body of studies has emerged in recent years. This review paper synthesizes the related literature that has been published throughout the last 15 years regarding the robustness of air transportation systems. The contributions of this work consist of two major elements. The first part provides a comprehensive discussion and cross-comparison of the reported results. We cover several major topics, including node importance identification, failure versus attack profiles, recovery and improvement techniques, and networks of networks approaches. The second part of this paper complements the review of aggregated findings by elaborating on a future agenda for robust air transportation research. Our survey-style overview hopefully contributes toward a better understanding of the state of the art in this research area, and, in turn, to the improvement of future air transportation resilience and sustainability.
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