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Article

Nature-Based Solutions Tools for Planning Urban Climate Adaptation: State of the Art

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Wageningen Environmental Research, Wageningen University & Research, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands
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Department of Architecture, Alma Mater Studiorum—University of Bologna, 40136 Bologna, Italy
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Deltares, 2629 HV Delft, The Netherlands
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Alessandro Pagano, Elena López Gunn, Leon Kapetas and Beatriz Mayor
Sustainability 2021, 13(11), 6381; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13116381
Received: 22 April 2021 / Revised: 21 May 2021 / Accepted: 31 May 2021 / Published: 4 June 2021
Despite the recognized potential of nature-based solutions (NBSs) to support climate adaptation, there are still wide barriers for a wider uptake of such NBS in urban areas. While tailored NBS tools could facilitate and accelerate this process, a comprehensive mapping of their availability and capacity to respond to cities’ challenges is missing. This research aims to provide an overview of tools that intend to facilitate the uptake of NBS for urban climate adaptation supporting cities in overcoming their challenges. To do so, this paper (i) presents the results of interviews and workshops with municipal officers and decision-makers from different European cities that identified the challenges they experience with NBS uptake; (ii) selects and reviews NBS tools and (iii) analyzes them on their capacity to address these implementation challenges. Our research revealed four key challenges that municipal officers experience: resources availability; level of expertise, know-how or competence; the institutional setting, and collaborative governance and planning. The results from the tools’ review show that existing tools can support overcoming a lack of expertise (31), but, to a smaller extent, can also be of use when experiencing the institutional setting (13), availability of resources (11), and collaborative governance and planning (10) as a challenge. This work provides researchers and tool developers with insights into potential market saturation as well as scarcity of certain types of tools that would match cities’ challenges, highlighting needs and opportunities for new tool development. View Full-Text
Keywords: nature-based solutions; green infrastructure; ecosystem services; climate adaptation; sustainable development; cities; tools; uptake; integrated planning; urban planning; review nature-based solutions; green infrastructure; ecosystem services; climate adaptation; sustainable development; cities; tools; uptake; integrated planning; urban planning; review
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MDPI and ACS Style

Voskamp, I.M.; de Luca, C.; Polo-Ballinas, M.B.; Hulsman, H.; Brolsma, R. Nature-Based Solutions Tools for Planning Urban Climate Adaptation: State of the Art. Sustainability 2021, 13, 6381. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13116381

AMA Style

Voskamp IM, de Luca C, Polo-Ballinas MB, Hulsman H, Brolsma R. Nature-Based Solutions Tools for Planning Urban Climate Adaptation: State of the Art. Sustainability. 2021; 13(11):6381. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13116381

Chicago/Turabian Style

Voskamp, Ilse M., Claudia de Luca, Monserrat B. Polo-Ballinas, Helena Hulsman, and Reinder Brolsma. 2021. "Nature-Based Solutions Tools for Planning Urban Climate Adaptation: State of the Art" Sustainability 13, no. 11: 6381. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13116381

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