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Article

The Influence of Negative Political Environment on Sustainable Tourism: A Study of Aksu-Jabagly World Heritage Site, Kazakhstan

1
State Key Laboratory of Desert and Oasis Ecology, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011, China
2
Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2020, 12(1), 143; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12010143
Received: 30 November 2019 / Revised: 17 December 2019 / Accepted: 17 December 2019 / Published: 23 December 2019
The political environment of a tourism destination is the most important element in planning, implementing, and controlling sustainable tourism development. The political environment refers to the coordination and cooperation among many participants to formulate and apply tourism policies. In our study the term political environment refers to political power, leadership, structures, mechanisms, and strategies, or policies for the implementation of sustainable tourism development. The main purpose of this article is to, through the example of Aksu-Jabagly natural heritage site in Kazakhstan, study how the negative political environment (NPE) of a tourism destination inhibits the implementation of sustainable tourism development in Kazakhstan. This study draws on in-depth interviews with local residents who are considered as one of the key stakeholders in the tourism industry. In our research, we conducted a questionnaire survey of 222 representative households from the neighboring village of Aksu-Jabagly, a natural world heritage site. Results show that because of negative political environments, the residents highly perceive the negative economic and environmental impacts of tourism development. Although the residents highly evaluated tourism’s positive sociocultural impacts, its relevance to other indicators was relatively weak. The residents are dissatisfied with tourism development, and their participation level in tourism was low. The results also reveal that highly perceived negative economic and negative environmental impacts of tourism are the main cause of residents’ dissatisfaction with tourism development and residents’ lack of participation in tourism. View Full-Text
Keywords: political environment; sustainable tourism; impact; world heritage; Aksu-Jabagly nature reserve; Kazakhstan political environment; sustainable tourism; impact; world heritage; Aksu-Jabagly nature reserve; Kazakhstan
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MDPI and ACS Style

Akbar, I.; Yang, Z.; Han, F.; Kanat, G. The Influence of Negative Political Environment on Sustainable Tourism: A Study of Aksu-Jabagly World Heritage Site, Kazakhstan. Sustainability 2020, 12, 143. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12010143

AMA Style

Akbar I, Yang Z, Han F, Kanat G. The Influence of Negative Political Environment on Sustainable Tourism: A Study of Aksu-Jabagly World Heritage Site, Kazakhstan. Sustainability. 2020; 12(1):143. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12010143

Chicago/Turabian Style

Akbar, Imanaly, Zhaoping Yang, Fang Han, and Gulnar Kanat. 2020. "The Influence of Negative Political Environment on Sustainable Tourism: A Study of Aksu-Jabagly World Heritage Site, Kazakhstan" Sustainability 12, no. 1: 143. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12010143

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