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Sustainability 2019, 11(7), 2095; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11072095

Contrasting Effects of Tillage and Landscape Structure on Spiders and Springtails in Vineyards

1
Institute of Zoology, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna (BOKU), A-1180 Vienna, Austria
2
Grupo de Protección Vegetal, Departamento de Protección Ambiental, Estación Experimental de Zaidín, CSIC, 18008 Granada, Spain
3
Institute for Land and Water Management Research, Austrian Federal Agency for Water Management, A-3252 Petzenkirchen, Austria
4
Institute of Integrative Nature Conservation Research, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna (BOKU), A-1180 Vienna, Austria
5
Division of Plant Protection, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna (BOKU), A-1180 Vienna, Austria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 February 2019 / Revised: 15 March 2019 / Accepted: 30 March 2019 / Published: 8 April 2019
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Abstract

Interactions between predatory species and their potential prey are little studied in vineyards, especially considering the surrounding landscape structure. We examined the effects of soil tillage intensities in vineyard inter-rows on the activity density and diversity of spiders (Araneae) and springtails (Collembola), their potential preys, and assessed whether these effects are altered by non-crop elements in the surrounding landscape. We collected data in 16 vineyards in Austria; eight were periodically mechanically disturbed (PMD), eight had permanent green cover (PGC). The study vineyards were embedded in landscapes ranging from structurally simple to complex. Both, spiders and springtails were collected with pitfall traps. Data analyses using generalized linear mixed models (GLMM) showed different effects of soil tillage intensities on spiders and springtails and an interaction with semi-natural elements (SNEs) in the surrounding landscape. Activities of springtails were higher under PMD than under PGC while spider activity density remained unaffected. Spider family Shannon diversity was lower under PMD than under PGC, while springtail species Shannon diversity was unaffected by tillage. Under PMD, spider activity and family diversity decreased with increasing SNEs in the surroundings indicating spider emigration away from vineyards. Under PGC, spider activity density increased with increasing SNE proportions in the surroundings when springtail activity density was high. Our findings suggest that recommendations on sustainable vineyard management should include both site and landscape factors. View Full-Text
Keywords: agroecology; viticulture; soil cultivation; landscape ecology agroecology; viticulture; soil cultivation; landscape ecology
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Pfingstmann, A.; Paredes, D.; Buchholz, J.; Querner, P.; Bauer, T.; Strauss, P.; Kratschmer, S.; Winter, S.; Zaller, J. Contrasting Effects of Tillage and Landscape Structure on Spiders and Springtails in Vineyards. Sustainability 2019, 11, 2095.

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