According to the above analysis, ecological policies and strategies were enacted following the laws. Law is the foundation for these documents. Due to the data limitation, ecological policy effect of Kyrgyzstan is evaluated during 2006, 2008–2015. In other words, only second and third period are evaluated in this part.
3.4.1. Eco-Efficiency Evaluation Index
Schaltegger S. & Sturm A. first proposed the concept of eco-efficiency [50
]. Usually, eco-efficiency is used to evaluate the relationship between Human activities and regional ecological capacity. In this study the definition of eco-efficiency is defined as an aspect of sustainability relating eco-environmental performance along with the comprehensive benefits [51
]. Basic idea of eco-efficiency is to get the maximum economic, ecological and social benefits with minimum resource consumption and environmental pollution. This is consistent with the DEA method requirements for input and output indicators. Usually, cost index is considered to be input index, while profitable index is considered to be output index [52
The Water Code is a representative, which reflects the development of ecological policy. Water management is the key part in the Aral Sea protection and ecological restoration. In addition, Kyrgyzstan belongs to arid and semi-arid regions. Water resource is regarded as an important factor in the development of a country in Central Asia. More than 90% water diversion is used for irrigation and other agricultural purposes in Kyrgyzstan. Therefore, “total water diversion” was selected as energy consumption index.
Kyrgyzstan as a developing country is vulnerable to vicious circle “Pollution - Economic recession - Poverty - Greater demands on natural resources - Pollution”. One of the ecological policy targets is breaking this vicious circle. Kyrgyzstan is rich in mineral resources, including metallic, non-metallic minerals and fuel power resources. The mining industry accounts for more than 40% of Kyrgyzstan’s exports and 10% of its GDP. Since 2010, the mineral resources industry development has been put on an important position [53
]. About 98% emissions of air pollutants from stationary sources came from mining explorations, processing industry and energy supply. On this background and considering data availability, “emissions of air pollutants from stationary sources” was selected as environmental pollution variable.
Since 2006 the status of forest ecosystems became much more important than before. 3 documents in succession aimed to protect forest ecosystems and establish forestry development as a sustainable economic sector. In 2009, MEE was converted into State Agency of Environmental Protection and Forestry (SAEPF). Besides, Kyrgyzstan is a mountainous country. Mountains cover 90% territory of the country. The protection of forest is very important to the whole ecosystem. Usually, forest coverage rate is the first choice for the output variable. However, forest coverage rate of Kyrgyzstan is very stable (unchanged), which could not reflect the human effort and government policy implement level. On this occasion, reforestation is the more suitable variable.
Poverty is one of the most important social problems in this country. During 2006–2015 poverty rate is about 32%. Poverty and economic development are closely linked, while ecological policy frequently was enacted with the economic development context in Kyrgyzstan. According to the DEA model principle, the more output, the better. So poverty rate was changed into non-poverty rate, which was the social benefit index.
In this paper, on the basis of previous studies [54
], the system of eco-efficiency evaluation index was built, considering the actual situation in Kyrgyzstan and the priority of ecological policy (Table 3
). “Total water diversion” and “emissions of air pollutants from stationary sources” were as two input indexes. “Per-capita GDP”, “reforestation” and “non-poverty rate” were as three output indexes. The non-poverty rate equals 100 minus the actual value of poverty rate. Value of emissions of air pollutants from stationary sources (X2
) was not fit the model. The DEA model requires that each value of the indexes should be an integer. Therefore, the actual value of X2
multiplied 100 to get new numbers for the model. All data were extracted from the statistical yearbooks published by National Statistical Committee of Kyrgyzstan.
Eight DMUs for evaluation are Bishkek city, Talas oblast, Jalal-Abad oblast, Naryn oblast, Issyk-Kul oblast, Batken oblast, Osh oblast, Chuy oblast.