The creation of augmented reality-related geographic information system (GIS) mapping applications has witnessed considerable advances in the technology of urban modeling; however, there are limitations to the technology that is currently used to create similar resources. The cost of the creation of the vehicle is an obstacle, and the rendering of textures of buildings is often lacking because of the distortion caused by the types of lenses that have been used. Generally, mobile mapping systems (MMSs) can extract detailed three-dimensional (3D) data with high quality texture information of the 3D building model. However, mapping urban areas by MMSs is expensive and requires advanced mathematical approaches with complicated steps. In particular, commercial MMS, which generally includes two GPS receivers, is an expensive device, costing ~$1 million. Thus, this research is aimed at developing a new MMS that semi-automatically produces high-quality texture information of 3D building models proposes a 3D urban model by hybrid approaches. Eventually, this study can support urban planners and people to improve their spatial perception and awareness of urban area for Smart City Planning.
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