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Article

Measuring the Direct and Indirect Effects of Neighborhood-Built Environments on Travel-related CO2 Emissions: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

1
College of Forestry and Landscape Architecture, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China
2
Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Urbanization and Geo-Simulation, School of Geography and Planning, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, 510275, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2018, 10(5), 1372; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10051372
Received: 17 February 2018 / Revised: 23 April 2018 / Accepted: 24 April 2018 / Published: 28 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Footprint: As an Environmental Sustainability Indicator)
Intervening in the built environment is a key way for land-use and transport planning and related policies to promote low-carbon development and low-carbon travel. It is of significance to explore and recognize the actual impact of the neighborhood built environment on travel-related CO2 emissions. This study calculated the CO2 emissions from four purposes of trips, which were within the urban region, using Travel O-D Point Intelligent Query System (TIQS) and 1239 residents’ travel survey questionnaires from 15 neighborhoods in Guangzhou. It measured the direct and indirect effects of built environments on CO2 emissions from different purposes of trips by developing structural equation models (SEMs). The results showed that for different purposes of trips, the effects of the neighborhood built environments on CO2 emissions were inconsistent. Almost all built environment elements had significant total effects on CO2 emissions, which were mainly indirect effects through mediators such as car ownership and trip distance, then affecting CO2 emissions indirectly. Most of the direct effects of neighborhood built environments on CO2 emissions were not significant, especially those from non-commuting trips. These findings suggest that in the process of formulating low-carbon oriented land-use and transport planning and policies, the indirect effects of the built environments should not be ignored, and the differences of the effects of the neighborhood built environments among different purposes of the trip should be fully considered. View Full-Text
Keywords: built environment; CO2 emissions; indirect effect; different purposes of trips; structural equation model (SEM) built environment; CO2 emissions; indirect effect; different purposes of trips; structural equation model (SEM)
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MDPI and ACS Style

Yang, W.; Wang, S.; Zhao, X. Measuring the Direct and Indirect Effects of Neighborhood-Built Environments on Travel-related CO2 Emissions: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach. Sustainability 2018, 10, 1372. https://doi.org/10.3390/su10051372

AMA Style

Yang W, Wang S, Zhao X. Measuring the Direct and Indirect Effects of Neighborhood-Built Environments on Travel-related CO2 Emissions: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach. Sustainability. 2018; 10(5):1372. https://doi.org/10.3390/su10051372

Chicago/Turabian Style

Yang, Wenyue, Shaojian Wang, and Xiaoming Zhao. 2018. "Measuring the Direct and Indirect Effects of Neighborhood-Built Environments on Travel-related CO2 Emissions: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach" Sustainability 10, no. 5: 1372. https://doi.org/10.3390/su10051372

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