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Sustainability 2018, 10(4), 967;

A Bi-Objective Green Closed Loop Supply Chain Design Problem with Uncertain Demand

School of Economics and Management, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China
College of Economics and Management, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China
Laboratoire Génie Industriel, Centrale Supélec, Uniersité Paris-Saclay, Grande Voie des Vignes, 92290 Châtenay-Malabry, France
Glorious Sun School of Business and Management, Donghua University, Shanghai 200051, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 March 2018 / Revised: 19 March 2018 / Accepted: 21 March 2018 / Published: 26 March 2018
PDF [1620 KB, uploaded 3 May 2018]


With the development of e-commerce, competition among enterprises is becoming fiercer. Furthermore, environmental problems can no longer be ignored. To address these challenges, we devise a green closed loop supply chain (GCLSC) with uncertain demand. In the problem, two conflict objectives and recycling the used products are considered. To solve this problem, a mathematical model is formulated with the chance constraint, and the ϵ -constraint method is adapted to obtain the true Pareto front for small sized problems. For larger sized problems, the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) and the multi-objective simulated annealing method (MOSA) are developed. Numerous computational experiments can help manufacturers make better production and sales plans to keep competitive advantage and protect the environment. View Full-Text
Keywords: supply chain design; bi-objective optimization; chance constraint; algorithms supply chain design; bi-objective optimization; chance constraint; algorithms

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Liu, M.; Liu, R.; Zhu, Z.; Chu, C.; Man, X. A Bi-Objective Green Closed Loop Supply Chain Design Problem with Uncertain Demand. Sustainability 2018, 10, 967.

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