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World Electric Vehicle Journal is published by MDPI from Volume 9 issue 1 (2018). Articles in this Issue were published by The World Electric Vehicle Association (WEVA) and its member the European Association for e-Mobility (AVERE), the Electric Drive Transportation Association (EDTA), and the Electric Vehicle Association of Asia Pacific (EVAAP). They are hosted by MDPI on as a courtesy and upon agreement with AVERE.
Open AccessArticle

Routing EV Users Towards an Optimal Charging Plan

FTW Telecommunication Research Center, Donau-City 1, 1220 Vienna, Austria
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
World Electr. Veh. J. 2012, 5(3), 688-695;
Published: 28 September 2012
PDF [2770 KB, uploaded 17 May 2018]


In this work we address the efficient operation of public charging stations. Matching energy supply and demand requires an interdisciplinary understanding of both the mobility of electric vehicle (EV) users and the load balancing mechanisms. As a result of existing mobility studies, we propose in this work a routing service for searching and reserving public charging spots in the neighborhood of a given destination. When comparing the search results for direct drive with those for a multimodal route (using driving, walking and public transport) in an urban environment, we obtain for the latter significantly more charging options in particular at low e-mobility penetration levels, at a cost of slightly longer trip duration. Further contributions address the schedule optimization, that, due to the proposed distributed architecture, can be performed independently at each public charging station. We formulate an integer program for the controlled charging and compare results obtained both with the exact and with a greedy heuristic method.
Keywords: e-mobility; EV routing service; multimodal route optimization; charging station; controlled charging; power flow calculation e-mobility; EV routing service; multimodal route optimization; charging station; controlled charging; power flow calculation
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Bessler, S.; Grønbæk, J. Routing EV Users Towards an Optimal Charging Plan. World Electr. Veh. J. 2012, 5, 688-695.

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