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Pharmaceutics 2018, 10(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics10010027

In Vitro Evaluation of Sunscreen Safety: Effects of the Vehicle and Repeated Applications on Skin Permeation from Topical Formulations

1
Department of Drug Sciences, Pharmaceutical Technology Section, University of Catania, Viale A. Doria 6, 95125 Catania, Italy
2
Rita Turnaturi Department of Drug Sciences, Medicinal Chemistry Section, University of Catania, Viale A. Doria 6, 95125 Catania, Italy
3
Carmela Parenti Department of Drug Sciences, Pharmacology and Toxicology Section, University of Catania, Viale A. Doria 6, 95125 Catania, Italy
4
Lorella Pasquinucci Department of Drug Sciences, Medicinal Chemistry Section, University of Catania, Viale A. Doria 6, 95125 Catania, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 December 2017 / Revised: 16 February 2018 / Accepted: 24 February 2018 / Published: 27 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Penetration Enhancement of Topical Formulations)
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Abstract

The evaluation of UV-filter in vitro percutaneous absorption allows the estimation of the systemic exposure dose (SED) and the margin of safety (MoS) of sunscreen products. As both the vehicle and pattern of application may affect sunscreen safety and efficacy, we evaluated in vitro release and skin permeation of two widely used UV-filters, octylmethoxycinnamate (OMC) and butylmethoxydibenzoylmethane (BMBM) from topical formulations with different features (oil in water (O/W) emulsions with different viscosity, water in oil (W/O) emulsion, oils with different lipophilicity). To mimic in-use conditions, we carried out experiments repeating sunscreen application on the skin surface for three consecutive days. BMBM release from all these vehicles was very low, thus leading to poor skin permeation. The vehicle composition significantly affected OMC release and skin permeation, and slight increases of OMC permeation were observed after repeated applications. From skin permeation data, SED and MoS values of BMBM and OMC were calculated for all the investigated formulations after a single application and repeated applications. While MoS values of BMBM were always well beyond the accepted safety limit, the safety of sunscreen formulations containing OMC may depend on the vehicle composition and the application pattern. View Full-Text
Keywords: sunscreen; topical formulation; safety; skin permeation; octyl methoxycinnamate; butylmethoxydibenzoylmethane; repeated application sunscreen; topical formulation; safety; skin permeation; octyl methoxycinnamate; butylmethoxydibenzoylmethane; repeated application
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Montenegro, L.; Turnaturi, R.; Parenti, C.; Pasquinucci, L. In Vitro Evaluation of Sunscreen Safety: Effects of the Vehicle and Repeated Applications on Skin Permeation from Topical Formulations. Pharmaceutics 2018, 10, 27.

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