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Open AccessCase Report

Epstein–Barr Virus-Induced Post-Transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder of the Central Nervous System Successfully Treated with Chemo-Immunotherapy

1
Department of Hematology and Rheumatology, Kindai University Faculty of Medicine, Osaka 589-8511, Japan
2
Department of Neurosurgery, Kindai University Faculty of Medicine, Osaka 589-8511, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2020, 12(4), 416; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12040416
Received: 11 March 2020 / Revised: 4 April 2020 / Accepted: 6 April 2020 / Published: 8 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Progress in Tumor Virology Research)
Aplastic anemia is a rare blood disease characterized by the destruction of the hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) in the bone marrow that, in the majority of cases, is caused by an autoimmune reaction. Patients with aplastic anemia are treated with immunosuppressive drugs and some of them, especially younger individuals with a donor available, can be successfully treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We report here a rare case of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) associated with Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) reactivation in a 30-year-old female patient who underwent allogeneic HSCT for severe aplastic anemia. The PTLD, which was diagnosed 230 days after transplantation, was localized exclusively in the central nervous system (specifically in the choroid plexus) and manifested with obvious signs of intracranial hypertension. After receiving three cycles of high dose methotrexate (HD-MTX) combined with rituximab, the patient achieved a complete clinical recovery with normalization of blood cell counts, no evidence of EBV reactivation, and no associated neurotoxicity. View Full-Text
Keywords: aplastic anemia; EBV; lymphoproliferative disorder; immunosuppressive therapy; transplant complications aplastic anemia; EBV; lymphoproliferative disorder; immunosuppressive therapy; transplant complications
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Inoue, H.; Rai, S.; Tanaka, H.; Espinoza, J.L.; Komori-Inoue, M.; Kakutani, H.; Minamoto, S.; Kumode, T.; Nakayama, S.; Taniguchi, Y.; Morita, Y.; Okuda, T.; Tatsumi, Y.; Ashida, T.; Matsumura, I. Epstein–Barr Virus-Induced Post-Transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder of the Central Nervous System Successfully Treated with Chemo-Immunotherapy. Viruses 2020, 12, 416.

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