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Article

Vegetative Propagation of Phytophthora cinnamomi-Tolerant Holm Oak Genotypes by Axillary Budding and Somatic Embryogenesis

1
Instituto de Investigaciones Agrobiológicas de Galicia (IIAG), Avd Vigo s/n, 15705 Santiago de Compostela, Spain
2
Faculty of Forestry, Institute for Dehesa Research (INDEHESA), University of Extremadura, Avenida Virgen del Puerto 2, 10600 Plasencia, Spain
3
Departamento de Ciencias Agroforestales, Universidad de Huelva, ETSI Campus de La Rábida, 21819 Palos de la Frontera, Huelva, Spain
4
Instituto Madrileño de Investigación y Desarrollo Rural, Agrario y Alimentario (IMIDRA), Apartado 127, 28800 Alcalá de Henares, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
MT Martínez and E. Corredoira contributed equally to this work.
A Solla and R Tapias contributed equally to this work.
Forests 2020, 11(8), 841; https://doi.org/10.3390/f11080841
Received: 8 July 2020 / Revised: 27 July 2020 / Accepted: 30 July 2020 / Published: 2 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Tissue Culture in Plant Reproduction)
Holm oak (Quercus ilex) is one of the most widely distributed tree species in the Mediterranean basin. High mortality rates have been observed in holm oak populations in the southwest of the Iberian Peninsula as a result of oak decline syndrome. Selection and propagation of genotypes tolerant to this syndrome could aid the restoration of affected areas. In this article, we report micropropagation and conservation procedures based on axillary budding and somatic embryogenesis (SE) of holm oak plants, selected for their tolerance to Phytophthora cinnamomi—the main biotic factor responsible for oak decline. Forced shoots were obtained from potted plants of eight different genotypes, and used as stock material to establish in vitro shoot proliferation cultures. Reliable shoot proliferation was obtained in seven out the eight genotypes established in vitro, whereas multiplication rates were genotype-dependent. The highest rooting rates were obtained by culturing shoots for 24 h or 48 h on rooting induction medium containing 25 mg L−1 indole-3-butyric acid, followed by transfer to medium supplemented with 20 µM silver thiosulphate. Axillary shoot cultures can be successful conserved by cold storage for 12 months at 4 °C under dim lighting. Shoot tips, excised from axillary shoot cultures established from tolerant plants, were used as initial explants to induce SE. Somatic embryos and/or nodular embryogenic structures were obtained on induction medium with or without indole-acetic acid 4 mg L−1, in two out the three genotypes evaluated, and induction rates ranged between 2 and 4%. Plantlet recovery was 45% after two months cold stratification of somatic embryos and eight weeks of culture on germination medium. Vegetative propagation of P. cinnamomi-tolerant Q. ilex trees is a valuable milestone towards the restoration of disease-affected areas. View Full-Text
Keywords: axillary shoot proliferation; clonal propagation; micropropagation; Phytophthora cinnamomi; Quercus ilex; silver thiosulphate; somatic embryogenesis; disease-tolerant plants axillary shoot proliferation; clonal propagation; micropropagation; Phytophthora cinnamomi; Quercus ilex; silver thiosulphate; somatic embryogenesis; disease-tolerant plants
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MDPI and ACS Style

Martínez, M.T.; Vieitez, F.J.; Solla, A.; Tapias, R.; Ramírez-Martín, N.; Corredoira, E. Vegetative Propagation of Phytophthora cinnamomi-Tolerant Holm Oak Genotypes by Axillary Budding and Somatic Embryogenesis. Forests 2020, 11, 841. https://doi.org/10.3390/f11080841

AMA Style

Martínez MT, Vieitez FJ, Solla A, Tapias R, Ramírez-Martín N, Corredoira E. Vegetative Propagation of Phytophthora cinnamomi-Tolerant Holm Oak Genotypes by Axillary Budding and Somatic Embryogenesis. Forests. 2020; 11(8):841. https://doi.org/10.3390/f11080841

Chicago/Turabian Style

Martínez, Maria T.; Vieitez, Francisco J.; Solla, Alejandro; Tapias, Raúl; Ramírez-Martín, Noelia; Corredoira, Elena. 2020. "Vegetative Propagation of Phytophthora cinnamomi-Tolerant Holm Oak Genotypes by Axillary Budding and Somatic Embryogenesis" Forests 11, no. 8: 841. https://doi.org/10.3390/f11080841

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