The Loess Plateau is an important region for vegetation restoration in China; however, changes in soil organic carbon (SOC), soil nutrients, and stoichiometry after restoration in this vulnerable ecoregion are not well understood. Typical restoration types, including orchardland, grassland, shrubland, and forestland, were chosen to examine changes in the stocks and stoichiometry of SOC, soil total nitrogen (TN), and soil total phosphorus (TP) at different soil depths and recovery times. Results showed that SOC stocks first increased and then stabilized in orchardland, grassland, and shrubland at 0–30 cm depths, while in forestland, SOC stocks gradually increased. Soil TN stocks first increased and then decreased in orchardland, shrubland, and forestland with restoration age at 0–30 cm depths, while soil TP stocks showed little variation between restoration types; at the same time, the overall C:N, C:P, and N:P ratios increased with restoration age. In the later stages of restoration, the stocks of SOC and soil TN at 0–30 cm soil depths were still lower than those in natural grassland and natural forest. Additionally, the SOC, soil TN, and soil TP stocks and the C:N, C:P, and N:P ratios decreased with soil depth. The forestland had the highest rate of change in SOC and soil TN stocks, at 0–10 cm soil depth. These results indicate a complex response of SOC, soil TN, and soil TP stocks and stoichiometry to vegetation restoration, which could have important implications for understanding C, N, and P changes and nutrient limitations after vegetation restoration.
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