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Materials 2016, 9(6), 417;

Effects of Rare Earth Metals on Steel Microstructures

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan
Chengdu Base, Panzhihua Iron & Steel Research Institute Co., Ltd., Chengdu 610399, China
Electronic Engineering, Kao Yuan University, Kaohsiung 82151, Taiwan
Steelmaking Process Development Section, China Steel Corporation, Kaohsiung 81233, Taiwan
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Douglas Ivey
Received: 6 April 2016 / Revised: 17 May 2016 / Accepted: 19 May 2016 / Published: 27 May 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Structure Analysis and Characterization)
Full-Text   |   PDF [9598 KB, uploaded 27 May 2016]   |  


Rare earth metals are used in semiconductors, solar cells and catalysts. This review focuses on the background of oxide metallurgy technologies, the chemical and physical properties of rare earth (RE) metals, the background of oxide metallurgy, the functions of RE metals in steelmaking, and the influences of RE metals on steel microstructures. Future prospects for RE metal applications in steelmaking are also presented. View Full-Text
Keywords: rare earth metals; steel; microstructure rare earth metals; steel; microstructure

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Pan, F.; Zhang, J.; Chen, H.-L.; Su, Y.-H.; Kuo, C.-L.; Su, Y.-H.; Chen, S.-H.; Lin, K.-J.; Hsieh, P.-H.; Hwang, W.-S. Effects of Rare Earth Metals on Steel Microstructures. Materials 2016, 9, 417.

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