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Reinforcement Strategies for Load-Bearing Calcium Phosphate Biocements

Department for Functional Materials in Medicine and Dentistry, University Hospital Würzburg, Pleicherwall 2, D-97070 Würzburg, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Amir A. Zadpoor
Materials 2015, 8(5), 2700-2717;
Received: 19 March 2015 / Revised: 6 May 2015 / Accepted: 11 May 2015 / Published: 20 May 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanics of Biomaterials)
Calcium phosphate biocements based on calcium phosphate chemistry are well-established biomaterials for the repair of non-load bearing bone defects due to the brittle nature and low flexural strength of such cements. This article features reinforcement strategies of biocements based on various intrinsic or extrinsic material modifications to improve their strength and toughness. Altering particle size distribution in conjunction with using liquefiers reduces the amount of cement liquid necessary for cement paste preparation. This in turn decreases cement porosity and increases the mechanical performance, but does not change the brittle nature of the cements. The use of fibers may lead to a reinforcement of the matrix with a toughness increase of up to two orders of magnitude, but restricts at the same time cement injection for minimal invasive application techniques. A novel promising approach is the concept of dual-setting cements, in which a second hydrogel phase is simultaneously formed during setting, leading to more ductile cement–hydrogel composites with largely unaffected application properties. View Full-Text
Keywords: calcium phosphate cements; porosity; fiber reinforcement; dual setting; mechanical properties calcium phosphate cements; porosity; fiber reinforcement; dual setting; mechanical properties
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Geffers, M.; Groll, J.; Gbureck, U. Reinforcement Strategies for Load-Bearing Calcium Phosphate Biocements. Materials 2015, 8, 2700-2717.

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