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Article

Comparative Effect of Antioxidant and Antibacterial Potential of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles from Aqueous Extract of Nepeta nepetella through Different Precursor Concentrations

by
Nouzha Fodil
1,*,
Djaaboub Serra
2,
Johar Amin Ahmed Abdullah
3,
Juan Domínguez-Robles
4,*,
Alberto Romero
3 and
Amrouche Abdelilah
1
1
Laboratory for Sustainable Management of Natural Resources in Arid and Semi-Arid Areas, University Center of Salhi Ahmed, P.O. Box 66, Naâma 45000, Algeria
2
Laboratory of the Valorization of Plant Resources and Food Security in Semi-arid Areas of Southwest Algeria, Bechar 08000, Algeria
3
Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Seville, 41012 Sevilla, Spain
4
Department of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Seville, 41012 Seville, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2024, 17(12), 2853; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17122853
Submission received: 26 April 2024 / Revised: 27 May 2024 / Accepted: 4 June 2024 / Published: 11 June 2024
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advantages and Perspectives of ZnO Nanostructured Materials)

Abstract

Antibiotic resistance is a global health crisis caused by the overuse and misuse of antibiotics. Accordingly, bacteria have developed mechanisms to resist antibiotics. This crisis endangers public health systems and medical procedures, underscoring the urgent need for novel antimicrobial agents. This study focuses on the green synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) using aqueous extracts from Nepeta nepetella subps. amethystine leaves and stems, employing different zinc sulfate concentrations (0.5, 1, and 2 M). NP characterization included transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD), along with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of ZnO NPs, prepared at varying concentrations of zinc sulfate, for their capacity to inhibit both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, as well as their antioxidant potential using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. SEM and TEM results showed predominantly spherical NPs. The smallest size (18.5 ± 1.3 nm for leaves and 18.1 ± 1.3 nm for stems) occurred with the 0.5 M precursor concentration. These NPs also exhibited remarkable antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria at 10 µg/mL, as well as the highest antioxidant activity, with an IC50 (the concentration of NPs that scavenge 50% of the initial DPPH radicals) of 62 ± 0.8 (µg/mL) for the leaves and 35 ± 0.6 (µg/mL) for the stems. NPs and precursor concentrations were modeled to assess their impact on bacteria using a 2D polynomial equation. Response surface plots identified optimal concentration conditions for antibacterial effectiveness against each species, promising in combating antibiotic resistance.
Keywords: zinc oxide nanoparticles; ZnO; antibacterial activity; antioxidant activity; green synthesis; Nepeta nepetella subps. amethystine zinc oxide nanoparticles; ZnO; antibacterial activity; antioxidant activity; green synthesis; Nepeta nepetella subps. amethystine

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MDPI and ACS Style

Fodil, N.; Serra, D.; Abdullah, J.A.A.; Domínguez-Robles, J.; Romero, A.; Abdelilah, A. Comparative Effect of Antioxidant and Antibacterial Potential of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles from Aqueous Extract of Nepeta nepetella through Different Precursor Concentrations. Materials 2024, 17, 2853. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17122853

AMA Style

Fodil N, Serra D, Abdullah JAA, Domínguez-Robles J, Romero A, Abdelilah A. Comparative Effect of Antioxidant and Antibacterial Potential of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles from Aqueous Extract of Nepeta nepetella through Different Precursor Concentrations. Materials. 2024; 17(12):2853. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17122853

Chicago/Turabian Style

Fodil, Nouzha, Djaaboub Serra, Johar Amin Ahmed Abdullah, Juan Domínguez-Robles, Alberto Romero, and Amrouche Abdelilah. 2024. "Comparative Effect of Antioxidant and Antibacterial Potential of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles from Aqueous Extract of Nepeta nepetella through Different Precursor Concentrations" Materials 17, no. 12: 2853. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17122853

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