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Open AccessArticle

Dendropanax Morbifera Extract-Mediated ZnO Nanoparticles Loaded with Indole-3-Carbinol for Enhancement of Anticancer Efficacy in the A549 Human Lung Carcinoma Cell Line

1
Department of Oriental Medicinal Biotechnology, College of Life Science, Kyung Hee University, Yongin-si 17104, Gyeonggi-do, Korea
2
Department of Cardiovascular and Neurologic Diseases, College of Korean Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 100011, Korea
3
Saerom Hanbang R&D Center, 76, Cheonseok-gil, Geumcheon-myeon, Naju-si 520010, Jeollanam-do, Korea
4
SD Leo R&D Center, 9-16, Yeonmujang 5-gil, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 100011, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to the work.
Materials 2020, 13(14), 3197; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13143197
Received: 26 June 2020 / Revised: 14 July 2020 / Accepted: 15 July 2020 / Published: 17 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterial Design for Disease Applications)
Dendropanax morbifera is a versatile plant that has been used as a herbal medicine due to its various useful medicinal effects. To protect its active component from biological stress and increase its drug efficacy as well as drug bioavailability, nanoemulsion was prepared. Dendropanax morbifera zinc oxide nanoparticles (DM-ZnO NPs) were synthesized using the plant extract via the co-precipitation method and loaded with active indole-3-carbinol for nanoemulsion formulation using the ultrasonication process. Field emission transmission electron microscope revealed the flower shape of the Dendropanax morbifera indole-3-carbinol zinc oxide nanoemulsion (DM-ZnO-I3C-NE). In contrast, DM-ZnO NPs showed a spheroid shape that coincides agreeably with field emission electron scanning microscope. The hydrodynamic sizes by dynamic light scattering are about 65 ± 3 nm and 239.6 ± 6 nm and the crystallite sizes from X-ray diffraction are 11.52 nm and 16.07 nm for DM-ZnO NPs and DM-ZnO-I3C-NE, respectively. In vitro analysis revealed the cytotoxicity of DM-ZnO-I3C-NE against a human lung cancer cell line (A549) at 12.5 µg/mL as well as reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. The DM-ZnO-I3C-NE-induced ROS generation level was higher than that of DM-ZnO NPs and free indole-3-carbinol. The synergistic effect of DM-ZnO and indole-3-carbinol indicates DM-ZnO-I3C-NE as a potential candidate for future lung cancer drug and could be scope for functional food. View Full-Text
Keywords: dendropanax morbifera; zinc nanoparticles; nanoemulsion; indole-3-carbinol; anti-cancer activity; cytotoxicity; lung cancer dendropanax morbifera; zinc nanoparticles; nanoemulsion; indole-3-carbinol; anti-cancer activity; cytotoxicity; lung cancer
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rupa, E.J.; Arunkumar, L.; Han, Y.; Kang, J.P.; Ahn, J.C.; Jung, S.-K.; Kim, M.; Kim, J.Y.; Yang, D.-C.; Lee, G.J. Dendropanax Morbifera Extract-Mediated ZnO Nanoparticles Loaded with Indole-3-Carbinol for Enhancement of Anticancer Efficacy in the A549 Human Lung Carcinoma Cell Line. Materials 2020, 13, 3197.

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