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Materials 2019, 12(1), 179; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12010179

Increasing Uptake of Silica Nanoparticles with Electroporation: From Cellular Characterization to Potential Applications

1
Institut de Pharmacologie et de Biologie Structurale—UMR 5089, 205 route de Narbonne, 31077 Toulouse CEDEX 04, France
2
Chromalys SAS, 29 rue jeanne Marvig, 31400 Toulouse, France
3
IRSD, Université de Toulouse, INSERM (U1220), INRA, ENVT, UPS, 31024 Toulouse CEDEX 3, France
4
UMR1037 INSERM, Université de Toulouse, ERL5294 CNRS, 31100 Toulouse, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 December 2018 / Revised: 21 December 2018 / Accepted: 29 December 2018 / Published: 7 January 2019
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Abstract

In the fields of biology and medicine, nanoproducts such as nanoparticles (NPs) are specifically interesting as theranostic tools, since they offer the double capacity to locally deliver active drugs and to image exactly where the product is delivered. Among the many described possibilities, silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) represent a good choice because of their ease of synthesis, the possibility of their vast functionalization, and their good biocompatibility. However, SiNPs’ passive cell internalization by endocytosis only distributes NPs into the cell cytoplasm and is unable to target the nucleus if SiNPs are larger than a few nanometers. In this study, we demonstrate that the cell penetration of SiNPs of 28–30 nm in diameter can be strongly enhanced using a physical method, called electroporation or electropermeabilization (EP). The uptake of fluorescently labelled silica nanoparticles was improved in two different cancer cell lines, namely, HCT-116 (human colon cancer) cells and RL (B-lymphoma) cells. First, we studied cells’ capability for the regular passive uptake of SiNPs in vitro. Then, we set EP parameters in order to induce a more efficient and rapid cell loading, also comprising the nuclear compartment, while preserving the cell viability. In the final approach, we performed in vivo experiments, and evidenced that the labeling was long-lasting, as confirmed by fluorescence imaging of labeled tumors, which enabled a 30-day follow-up. This kind of SiNPs delivery, achieved by EP, could be employed to load extensive amounts of active ingredients into the cell nucleus, and concomitantly allow the monitoring of the long-term fate of nanoparticles. View Full-Text
Keywords: tumor targeting; drug delivery; electroporation; silica nanoparticles fluorescence imaging; electric field tumor targeting; drug delivery; electroporation; silica nanoparticles fluorescence imaging; electric field
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Phonesouk, E.; Lechevallier, S.; Ferrand, A.; Rols, M.-P.; Bezombes, C.; Verelst, M.; Golzio, M. Increasing Uptake of Silica Nanoparticles with Electroporation: From Cellular Characterization to Potential Applications. Materials 2019, 12, 179.

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