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Open AccessArticle

Evolution of Grain Interfaces in Annealed Duplex Stainless Steel after Parallel Cross Rolling and Direct Rolling

1
Institute for Advanced Manufacturing, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255000, China
2
School of Mechanical Engineering, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255000, China
3
Center of Testing and Analysis, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255000, China
4
Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2018, 11(5), 816; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11050816
Received: 14 April 2018 / Revised: 7 May 2018 / Accepted: 14 May 2018 / Published: 16 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamic Recrystallization and Microstructural Evolution in Alloys)
Changes in various grain interfaces, including the grain boundary and phase boundary, are a strong indication of microstructural changes, particularly ultra-fined grains achieved by large strain deformation and subsequent annealing. After direct rolling and cross rolling with the same strain of ε = 2, the distributions of the interfaces in annealed UNS S32304 duplex stainless steel were investigated using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) in this study. The ferrite experienced continued recovery, and a high density of low-angle grain boundaries (LAGBs) was produced. The percentage and number of twin boundaries (TBs) and LAGBs varied within the austenite. TBs were frequently found within austenite, showing a deviation from the Kurdjumov-Sachs (K-S) orientation relationship (OR) with ferrite matrix. However, LAGBs usually occur in austenite, with the K-S OR in the ferrite matrix. LAGBs were prevalent in the precipitated austenite grains, and therefore a strong texture was introduced in the cross-rolled and annealed samples, in which the precipitated austenite readily maintained the K-S OR in the ferrite matrix. By contrast, more TBs and a less robust texture were found in the precipitated austenite in direct-rolled and annealed samples, deviating from the K-S OR. View Full-Text
Keywords: grain interface; twin boundary; cross rolling; duplex stainless steel grain interface; twin boundary; cross rolling; duplex stainless steel
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Wang, M.; Li, H.; Tian, Y.; Guo, H.; Fang, X.; Guo, Y. Evolution of Grain Interfaces in Annealed Duplex Stainless Steel after Parallel Cross Rolling and Direct Rolling. Materials 2018, 11, 816.

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