Changes in various grain interfaces, including the grain boundary and phase boundary, are a strong indication of microstructural changes, particularly ultra-fined grains achieved by large strain deformation and subsequent annealing. After direct rolling and cross rolling with the same strain of ε = 2, the distributions of the interfaces in annealed UNS S32304 duplex stainless steel were investigated using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) in this study. The ferrite experienced continued recovery, and a high density of low-angle grain boundaries (LAGBs) was produced. The percentage and number of twin boundaries (TBs) and LAGBs varied within the austenite. TBs were frequently found within austenite, showing a deviation from the Kurdjumov-Sachs (K-S) orientation relationship (OR) with ferrite matrix. However, LAGBs usually occur in austenite, with the K-S OR in the ferrite matrix. LAGBs were prevalent in the precipitated austenite grains, and therefore a strong texture was introduced in the cross-rolled and annealed samples, in which the precipitated austenite readily maintained the K-S OR in the ferrite matrix. By contrast, more TBs and a less robust texture were found in the precipitated austenite in direct-rolled and annealed samples, deviating from the K-S OR.
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