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Energies 2014, 7(2), 834-856;

Convex Optimization for the Energy Management of Hybrid Electric Vehicles Considering Engine Start and Gearshift Costs

Institute for Dynamic Systems and Control, ETH Zurich, Sonneggstrasse 3, Zurich 8092, Switzerland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 November 2013 / Revised: 30 January 2014 / Accepted: 5 February 2014 / Published: 19 February 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hybrid Vehicles)
Full-Text   |   PDF [549 KB, uploaded 17 March 2015]


This paper presents a novel method to solve the energy management problem for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) with engine start and gearshift costs. The method is based on a combination of deterministic dynamic programming (DP) and convex optimization. As demonstrated in a case study, the method yields globally optimal results while returning the solution in much less time than the conventional DP method. In addition, the proposed method handles state constraints, which allows for the application to scenarios where the battery state of charge (SOC) reaches its boundaries. View Full-Text
Keywords: HEV; energy management; convex optimization HEV; energy management; convex optimization
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Nüesch, T.; Elbert, P.; Flankl, M.; Onder, C.; Guzzella, L. Convex Optimization for the Energy Management of Hybrid Electric Vehicles Considering Engine Start and Gearshift Costs. Energies 2014, 7, 834-856.

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