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Review

Net Zero Energy Buildings: Variations, Clarifications, and Requirements in Response to the Paris Agreement

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Department of Architecture, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA
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Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Carolyn S. Hayles
Energies 2021, 14(13), 3760; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14133760
Received: 25 May 2021 / Revised: 14 June 2021 / Accepted: 17 June 2021 / Published: 23 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental and Sustainable Built Environments)
Buildings contribute to greenhouse gas emissions that cause environmental impacts on climate change. Net Zero Energy (NZ) buildings would reduce greenhouse gases. The current definition of NZ lacks consensus and has created uncertainties, which cause delays in the adoption of NZ. This paper proposes a Process for Clarification to Accelerate the Net Zero (PC-A-NZ) through three integrated steps: variations, strategies, and requirements. We expand on the results in published NZ literature to clarify the differences in definition and strategy. The objective of this review is to (1) distinguish current variable parameters that are slowing the acceptance of NZ, and (2) focus the discussion internationally on moving faster toward applying NZ to a larger common agreement. The publications of global NZ target assessment and energy efficient strategies will be reviewed to address the main requirements in expediting NZ’s successful progress. Our NZ review analysis highlights (1) how the existing NZ definitions and criteria differ, (2) how calculation strategies vary, and (3) how standards and requirements are often localized. The proposed PC-A-NZ will help policymakers and stakeholders to re-evaluate the existing definitions, standards, and requirements to optimize the use of renewable technologies, improved energy efficiency and electrification to speed up achieving the NZ targets. Definition: There are multiple NZ definitions that vary in source and supply requirement, timescale, emission source, and grid connection. View Full-Text
Keywords: climate action target; net zero energy building; net zero variation; energy efficiency strategy; electrification; renewable energy; decarbonization; net zero standard climate action target; net zero energy building; net zero variation; energy efficiency strategy; electrification; renewable energy; decarbonization; net zero standard
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MDPI and ACS Style

Moghaddasi, H.; Culp, C.; Vanegas, J.; Ehsani, M. Net Zero Energy Buildings: Variations, Clarifications, and Requirements in Response to the Paris Agreement. Energies 2021, 14, 3760. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14133760

AMA Style

Moghaddasi H, Culp C, Vanegas J, Ehsani M. Net Zero Energy Buildings: Variations, Clarifications, and Requirements in Response to the Paris Agreement. Energies. 2021; 14(13):3760. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14133760

Chicago/Turabian Style

Moghaddasi, Haleh, Charles Culp, Jorge Vanegas, and Mehrdad Ehsani. 2021. "Net Zero Energy Buildings: Variations, Clarifications, and Requirements in Response to the Paris Agreement" Energies 14, no. 13: 3760. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14133760

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