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A Techno-Economic Analysis of Vehicle-to-Building: Battery Degradation and Efficiency Analysis in the Context of Coordinated Electric Vehicle Charging

Institute for Electrical Energy Storage Technology, Technical University of Munich (TUM), Arcisstr. 21, 80333 Munich, Germany
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Energies 2019, 12(5), 955; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12050955
Received: 13 February 2019 / Revised: 5 March 2019 / Accepted: 5 March 2019 / Published: 12 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Storage and Management for Electric Vehicles)
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Abstract

In the context of the increased acceptance and usage of electric vehicles (EVs), vehicle-to-building (V2B) has proven to be a new and promising use case. Although this topic is already being discussed in literature, there is still a lack of experience on how such a system, of allowing bidirectional power flows between an EV and building, will work in a residential environment. The challenge is to optimize the interplay of electrical load, photovoltaic (PV) generation, EV, and optionally a home energy storage system (HES). In total, fourteen different scenarios are explored for a German household. A two-step approach is used, which combines a computationally efficient linear optimizer with a detailed modelling of the non-linear effects on the battery. The change in battery degradation, storage system efficiency, and operating expenses (OPEX) as a result of different, unidirectional and bidirectional, EV charging schemes is examined for both an EV battery and a HES. The simulations show that optimizing unidirectional charging can improve the OPEX by 15%. The addition of V2B leads to a further 11% cost reduction, however, this corresponds with a 12% decrease in EV battery lifetime. Techno-economic analysis reveals that the V2B charging solution with no HES leads to strong self-consumption improvements (EUR 1381 savings over ten years), whereas, this charging scheme would not be justified for a residential prosumer with a HES (only EUR 160 savings). View Full-Text
Keywords: battery degradation; battery energy storage system; charging scheme; efficiency; electric vehicle; linear programming; lithium ion battery; operating expenses; residential battery storage; vehicle-to-building battery degradation; battery energy storage system; charging scheme; efficiency; electric vehicle; linear programming; lithium ion battery; operating expenses; residential battery storage; vehicle-to-building
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Englberger, S.; Hesse, H.; Kucevic, D.; Jossen, A. A Techno-Economic Analysis of Vehicle-to-Building: Battery Degradation and Efficiency Analysis in the Context of Coordinated Electric Vehicle Charging. Energies 2019, 12, 955.

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