Technical, economic and environmental assessments of projected power-to-gas (PtG) deployment scenarios at distributed- to national-scale are reviewed, as well as their extensions to nuclear-assisted renewable hydrogen. Their collective research trends, outcomes, challenges and limitations are highlighted, leading to suggested future work areas. These studies have focused on the conversion of excess wind and solar photovoltaic electricity in European-based energy systems using low-temperature electrolysis technologies. Synthetic natural gas, either solely or with hydrogen, has been the most frequent PtG product. However, the spectrum of possible deployment scenarios has been incompletely explored to date, in terms of geographical/sectorial application environment, electricity generation technology, and PtG processes, products and their end-uses to meet a given energy system demand portfolio. Suggested areas of focus include PtG deployment scenarios: (i) incorporating concentrated solar- and/or hybrid renewable generation technologies; (ii) for energy systems facing high cooling and/or water desalination/treatment demands; (iii) employing high-temperature and/or hybrid hydrogen production processes; and (iv) involving PtG material/energy integrations with other installations/sectors. In terms of PtG deployment simulation, suggested areas include the use of dynamic and load/utilization factor-dependent performance characteristics, dynamic commodity prices, more systematic comparisons between power-to-what potential deployment options and between product end-uses, more holistic performance criteria, and formal optimizations.
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