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Energies 2018, 11(4), 1010; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11041010

The Impact of Drive Cycles and Auxiliary Power on Passenger Car Fuel Economy

1
Institute of Electrochemical Process Engineering (IEK-3), Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425 Jülich, Germany
2
Chair for Fuel Cells, RWTH Aachen University, 52056 Aachen, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 March 2018 / Revised: 13 April 2018 / Accepted: 13 April 2018 / Published: 20 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Energy)
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Abstract

In view of the advancement of zero emission transportation and current discussions on the reliability of nominal passenger car fuel economy, this article considers the procedure for assessing the potential for reducing the fuel consumption of passenger cars by using electric power to operate them. The analysis compares internal combustion engines, hybrid and fully electric concepts utilizing batteries and fuel cells. The starting point for the newly developed, simulation-based fuel consumption analysis is a longitudinal vehicle model. Mechanical power requirements on the drive side incorporate a large variety of standardized drive cycles to simulate typical patterns of car usage. The power requirements of electric heating and air conditioning are also included in the simulation, as these are especially relevant to electric powertrains. Moreover, on-board grid-load profiles are considered in the assessment. Fuel consumption is optimized by applying concept-specific operating strategies. The results show that the combination of low average driving speed and elevated onboard power requirements have severe impacts on the fuel efficiency of all powertrain configurations analyzed. In particular, the operational range of battery-electric vehicles is strongly affected by this due to the limited storage capacity of today’s batteries. The analysis confirms the significance of considering different load patterns of vehicle usage related to driving profiles and onboard electrical and thermal loads. View Full-Text
Keywords: tank-to-wheel assessment; passenger car fuel economy; electric drives; auxiliary power; fuel cell system; battery tank-to-wheel assessment; passenger car fuel economy; electric drives; auxiliary power; fuel cell system; battery
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Grube, T.; Stolten, D. The Impact of Drive Cycles and Auxiliary Power on Passenger Car Fuel Economy. Energies 2018, 11, 1010.

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