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Open AccessArticle

A Risk and Decision Analysis Framework to Evaluate Future PM2.5 Risk: A Case Study in Los Angeles-Long Beach Metro Area

by 1,* and 2
1
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235, USA
2
College of Civil Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(9), 4905; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094905
Received: 27 March 2021 / Revised: 25 April 2021 / Accepted: 26 April 2021 / Published: 4 May 2021
This study examines the L.A.-Long Beach Metro area concerning the future risk of the PM2.5 concentration increase. Population expansion, economic growth, and temperature increase are incorporated to estimate the probability of the magnitude of PM2.5 emission increase. Three possible sectors for the reduction of PM2.5 emissions are considered: ocean-going vessels, refineries, and electricity-generating units. The decision of how best to allocate emissions-reduction efforts among these three sectors is analyzed using a quantitative and qualitative decision-analysis framework. For quantitative analysis, Expected Monetary Value (EMV) and Expected Utility (EU) methods are used to select the optimal sector to invest in. Based on the EMV calculation, the refineries sector is 3.5 times and 6.4 times more worthy of investment compared to the electricity-generating units and the ocean-going vessels sector, respectively. For the qualitative analysis, three criteria (investment efficiency, implementation difficulty, time to become effective) are considered in the decision-making process and sensitivity analysis is conducted to inform the ocean-going vessel sector is the optimal alternative for all possible scenarios. The refineries sector is more preferred than the electricity-generating units sector when the implementation difficulty’s weight is smaller than 50%. This study provides a valuable risk and decision analysis framework for analyzing the air pollution problem associated with the future PM2.5 concentration increase caused by three risk factors: population growth, economic growth, and climate change. View Full-Text
Keywords: PM2.5; risk analysis; decision analysis; expected monetary value (EMV); expected utility (EU); Los Angeles-Long Beach Metro Area (LA-LBMA) PM2.5; risk analysis; decision analysis; expected monetary value (EMV); expected utility (EU); Los Angeles-Long Beach Metro Area (LA-LBMA)
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MDPI and ACS Style

He, B.; Guan, Q. A Risk and Decision Analysis Framework to Evaluate Future PM2.5 Risk: A Case Study in Los Angeles-Long Beach Metro Area. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 4905. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094905

AMA Style

He B, Guan Q. A Risk and Decision Analysis Framework to Evaluate Future PM2.5 Risk: A Case Study in Los Angeles-Long Beach Metro Area. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(9):4905. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094905

Chicago/Turabian Style

He, Bowen; Guan, Qun. 2021. "A Risk and Decision Analysis Framework to Evaluate Future PM2.5 Risk: A Case Study in Los Angeles-Long Beach Metro Area" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 18, no. 9: 4905. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094905

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