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The Evolution in Anxiety and Depression with the Progression of the Pandemic in Adult Populations from Eight Countries and Four Continents

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Department of Community Health Sciences, Faculté de Médecine et des Sciences de la Santé, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC J1H 5N4, Canada
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School of Health Sciences, University of Canterbury-Te Whare Wananga o Waitaha, Christchurch 8140, New Zealand
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Collaborating Centre for Oxford University and CUHK for Disaster and Medical Humanitarian Response, JC School of Public Health and Primary Care, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Ngan Shing Street 30-32, Hong Kong, China
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School of Applied Politics, Faculté des Lettres et Sciences Humaines, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC J1K 2R1, Canada
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Interdisciplinary School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON K1N 7K4, Canada
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Department of Communication, Faculté de Lettres et Sciences Humaines, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC J1K 2R1, Canada
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Académie du Journalisme et des Médias, Université de Neuchâtel, 2000 Neuchâtel, Switzerland
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[email protected], Université de Genève, Boulevard du Pont-d’Arve 40, 1205 Genève, Switzerland
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Institut Langage et Communication, Université catholique de Louvain, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium
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Institute for Media Studies, KU Leuven, 3000 Leuven, Belgium
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Centre for Sociological Research, KU Leuven, 3000 Leuven, Belgium
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School of Political Studies, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5, Canada
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National Collaborating Centre for Infectious Diseases, Rady Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3E 0T5, Canada
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Department of Emergency Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Philippines, Manille Grand, Manila 1000, Philippines
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Centro Universitário de Brasília, Brasilia 70850-090, Brazil
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Department of Health, Manila, Manila 2932, Philippines
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Public Health England, London SE1 8UG, UK
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Department of Family Medicine & Emergency Medicine, Faculté de Médecine et des Sciences de la Santé, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC J1H 5N4, Canada
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Lennart Reifels and Michel Dückers
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(9), 4845; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094845
Received: 26 March 2021 / Revised: 27 April 2021 / Accepted: 29 April 2021 / Published: 1 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Disaster Mental Health Risk Reduction)
Nearly a year after the classification of the COVID-19 outbreak as a global pandemic, it is clear that different factors have contributed to an increase in psychological disorders, including public health measures that infringe on personal freedoms, growing financial losses, and conflicting messages. This study examined the evolution of psychosocial impacts with the progression of the pandemic in adult populations from different countries and continents, and identified, among a wide range of individual and country-level factors, which ones are contributing to this evolving psychological response. An online survey was conducted in May/June 2020 and in November 2020, among a sample of 17,833 adults (Phase 1: 8806; Phase 2: 9027) from eight countries/regions (Canada, the United States, England, Switzerland, Belgium, Hong Kong, the Philippines, New Zealand). Probable generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and major depressive episode (MDE) were assessed. The independent role of potential factors was examined using multilevel logistic regression. Probable GAD or MDE was indicated by 30.1% and 32.5% of the respondents during phases 1 and 2, respectively (a 7.9% increase over time), with an important variation according to countries/regions (range from 22.3% in Switzerland to 38.8% in the Philippines). This proportion exceeded 50% among young adults (18–24 years old) in all countries except for Switzerland. Beyond young age, several factors negatively influenced mental health in times of pandemic; important factors were found, including weak sense of coherence (adjusted odds ratio aOR = 3.89), false beliefs (aOR = 2.33), and self-isolation/quarantine (aOR = 2.01). The world has entered a new era dominated by psychological suffering and rising demand for mental health interventions, along a continuum from health promotion to specialized healthcare. More than ever, we need to innovate and build interventions aimed at strengthening key protective factors, such as sense of coherence, in the fight against the adversity caused by the concurrent pandemic and infodemic. View Full-Text
Keywords: pandemic; psychosocial impacts; sense of coherence pandemic; psychosocial impacts; sense of coherence
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MDPI and ACS Style

Généreux, M.; Schluter, P.J.; Landaverde, E.; Hung, K.K.; Wong, C.S.; Mok, C.P.Y.; Blouin-Genest, G.; O’Sullivan, T.; David, M.D.; Carignan, M.-E.; Champagne-Poirier, O.; Pignard-Cheynel, N.; Salerno, S.; Lits, G.; d’Haenens, L.; Coninck, D.D.; Matthys, K.; Champagne, E.; Burlone, N.; Qadar, Z.; Herbosa, T.; Ribeiro-Alves, G.; Law, R.; Murray, V.; Chan, E.Y.Y.; Roy, M. The Evolution in Anxiety and Depression with the Progression of the Pandemic in Adult Populations from Eight Countries and Four Continents. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 4845. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094845

AMA Style

Généreux M, Schluter PJ, Landaverde E, Hung KK, Wong CS, Mok CPY, Blouin-Genest G, O’Sullivan T, David MD, Carignan M-E, Champagne-Poirier O, Pignard-Cheynel N, Salerno S, Lits G, d’Haenens L, Coninck DD, Matthys K, Champagne E, Burlone N, Qadar Z, Herbosa T, Ribeiro-Alves G, Law R, Murray V, Chan EYY, Roy M. The Evolution in Anxiety and Depression with the Progression of the Pandemic in Adult Populations from Eight Countries and Four Continents. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(9):4845. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094845

Chicago/Turabian Style

Généreux, Mélissa; Schluter, Philip J.; Landaverde, Elsa; Hung, Kevin K.; Wong, Chi S.; Mok, Catherine P.Y.; Blouin-Genest, Gabriel; O’Sullivan, Tracey; David, Marc D.; Carignan, Marie-Eve; Champagne-Poirier, Olivier; Pignard-Cheynel, Nathalie; Salerno, Sébastien; Lits, Grégoire; d’Haenens, Leen; Coninck, David D.; Matthys, Koenraad; Champagne, Eric; Burlone, Nathalie; Qadar, Zeeshan; Herbosa, Teodoro; Ribeiro-Alves, Gleisse; Law, Ronald; Murray, Virginia; Chan, Emily Y.Y.; Roy, Mathieu. 2021. "The Evolution in Anxiety and Depression with the Progression of the Pandemic in Adult Populations from Eight Countries and Four Continents" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 18, no. 9: 4845. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094845

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