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Article

Activated Olive Stones as a Low-Cost and Environmentally Friendly Adsorbent for Removing Cephalosporin C from Aqueous Solutions

1
Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Cartagena, Paseo Alfonso XIII, 30203 Cartagena, Spain
2
Department Chemical Engineering, Campus of Espinardo, University of Murcia, 30100 Murcia, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(9), 4489; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094489
Received: 25 March 2021 / Revised: 19 April 2021 / Accepted: 22 April 2021 / Published: 23 April 2021
In this paper, we describe the removal of cephalosporin C (CPC) from aqueous solutions by adsorption onto activated olive stones (AOS) in a stirred tank. For comparative purposes, several experiments of adsorption onto commercial granular activated carbon were carried out. A quantum study of the different species of cephalosporin C that, depending on the pH, exist in aqueous solution pointed to a favorable mass transfer process during adsorption. Activated olive stones were characterized by SEM, EDX and IR techniques and their pHzc was determined. A 10−3 M HCl cephalosporin C solution has been selected for the adsorption experiments because at the pH of that solution both electrostatic and hydrogen bond interactions are expected to be established between the adsorbate and the adsorbent. The adsorption process is best described by the Freundlich isotherm model and the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, while the adsorption mechanism is mainly controlled by film diffusion. Under the conditions studied, the adsorption process is of a physical nature, endothermic and spontaneous. Comparison of the adsorption results obtained in this paper with those of other authors shows that the efficiency of AOS is 20% of that of activated carbon but 65% higher than that of the XAD-2 adsorbent. Considering its low price, abundance, easy accessibility and eco-compatibility, the use of activated olive stones as adsorbents for the removal of emerging pollutants from aqueous solutions represents an interesting possibility from both the economic and the environmental points of view. View Full-Text
Keywords: biosorption; agricultural wastes; emerging pollutants; equilibrium; kinetics; thermodynamics biosorption; agricultural wastes; emerging pollutants; equilibrium; kinetics; thermodynamics
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MDPI and ACS Style

León, G.; Saura, F.; Hidalgo, A.M.; Miguel, B. Activated Olive Stones as a Low-Cost and Environmentally Friendly Adsorbent for Removing Cephalosporin C from Aqueous Solutions. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 4489. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094489

AMA Style

León G, Saura F, Hidalgo AM, Miguel B. Activated Olive Stones as a Low-Cost and Environmentally Friendly Adsorbent for Removing Cephalosporin C from Aqueous Solutions. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(9):4489. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094489

Chicago/Turabian Style

León, Gerardo, Francisco Saura, Asunción M. Hidalgo, and Beatriz Miguel. 2021. "Activated Olive Stones as a Low-Cost and Environmentally Friendly Adsorbent for Removing Cephalosporin C from Aqueous Solutions" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 9: 4489. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094489

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