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Article

Organophosphate Flame Retardants and Perfluoroalkyl Substances in Drinking Water Treatment Plants from Korea: Occurrence and Human Exposure

1
Education & Research Center for Infrastructure of Smart Ocean City (i-SOC Center), Pusan National University, Busan 46241, Korea
2
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 46241, Korea
3
National Fishery Products Quality Management Service, Busan 48943, Korea
4
Department of Environmental Infrastructure Research, National Institute of Environmental Research, Ministry of Environment, Incheon 22689, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Karthikraj Rajendiran, Tao Zhang, Un-Jung Kim and Maria Pilar Martinez-Moral
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(5), 2645; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18052645
Received: 1 February 2021 / Revised: 25 February 2021 / Accepted: 2 March 2021 / Published: 5 March 2021
In this study, the concentrations of organophosphate flame retardants (OPFR) and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) were investigated in raw water and treated water samples obtained from 18 drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs). The ∑13OPFR concentrations in the treated water samples (29.5–122 ng/L; median 47.5 ng/L) were lower than those in the raw water (37.7–231 ng/L; median 98.1 ng/L), which indicated the positive removal rates (0–80%) of ∑13OPFR in the DWTPs. The removal efficiencies of ∑27PFAS in the DWTPs ranged from −200% to 50%, with the ∑27PFAS concentrations in the raw water (4.15–154 ng/L; median 32.0 ng/L) being similar to or lower than those in the treated water (4.74–116 ng/L; median 42.2 ng/L). Among OPFR, tris(chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP) and tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) were dominant in both raw water and treated water samples obtained from the DWTPs. The dominant PFAS (perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA)) in the raw water samples were slightly different from those in the treated water samples (PFOA, L-perfluorohexane sulfonate (L-PFHxS), and PFHxA). The 95-percentile daily intakes of ∑13OPFR and ∑27PFAS via drinking water consumption were estimated to be up to 4.9 ng/kg/d and 0.22 ng/kg/d, respectively. The hazard index values of OPFR and PFAS were lower than 1, suggesting the risks less than known hazardous levels. View Full-Text
Keywords: organophosphate flame retardants (OPFR); perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS); drinking water treatment plants; occurrence; human exposure organophosphate flame retardants (OPFR); perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS); drinking water treatment plants; occurrence; human exposure
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sim, W.; Choi, S.; Choo, G.; Yang, M.; Park, J.-H.; Oh, J.-E. Organophosphate Flame Retardants and Perfluoroalkyl Substances in Drinking Water Treatment Plants from Korea: Occurrence and Human Exposure. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 2645. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18052645

AMA Style

Sim W, Choi S, Choo G, Yang M, Park J-H, Oh J-E. Organophosphate Flame Retardants and Perfluoroalkyl Substances in Drinking Water Treatment Plants from Korea: Occurrence and Human Exposure. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(5):2645. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18052645

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sim, Wonjin, Sol Choi, Gyojin Choo, Mihee Yang, Ju-Hyun Park, and Jeong-Eun Oh. 2021. "Organophosphate Flame Retardants and Perfluoroalkyl Substances in Drinking Water Treatment Plants from Korea: Occurrence and Human Exposure" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 5: 2645. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18052645

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