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Review

Exposomes to Exosomes: Exosomes as Tools to Study Epigenetic Adaptive Mechanisms in High-Altitude Humans

1
Max-Planck Institute for Heart and Lung Research, Member of the German Center for Lung Research (DZL), Member of the Cardio-Pulmonary Institute (CPI), 61231 Bad Nauheim, Germany
2
Institute for Lung Health (ILH), Justus Liebig University, 35392 Giessen, Germany
3
Department of Internal Medicine, Justus-Liebig University Giessen, Member of the DZL, Member of CPI, 35392 Giessen, Germany
4
Frankfurt Cancer Institute (FCI), Goethe University, 60438 Frankfurt am Main, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(16), 8280; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18168280
Received: 30 June 2021 / Revised: 30 July 2021 / Accepted: 31 July 2021 / Published: 5 August 2021
Humans on earth inhabit a wide range of environmental conditions and some environments are more challenging for human survival than others. However, many living beings, including humans, have developed adaptive mechanisms to live in such inhospitable, harsh environments. Among different difficult environments, high-altitude living is especially demanding because of diminished partial pressure of oxygen and resulting chronic hypobaric hypoxia. This results in poor blood oxygenation and reduces aerobic oxidative respiration in the mitochondria, leading to increased reactive oxygen species generation and activation of hypoxia-inducible gene expression. Genetic mechanisms in the adaptation to high altitude is well-studied, but there are only limited studies regarding the role of epigenetic mechanisms. The purpose of this review is to understand the epigenetic mechanisms behind high-altitude adaptive and maladaptive phenotypes. Hypobaric hypoxia is a form of cellular hypoxia, which is similar to the one suffered by critically-ill hypoxemia patients. Thus, understanding the adaptive epigenetic signals operating in in high-altitude adjusted indigenous populations may help in therapeutically modulating signaling pathways in hypoxemia patients by copying the most successful epigenotype. In addition, we have summarized the current information about exosomes in hypoxia research and prospects to use them as diagnostic tools to study the epigenome of high-altitude adapted healthy or maladapted individuals. View Full-Text
Keywords: high-altitude adaptation; high-altitude pulmonary hypertension; hypobaric hypoxia; epigenetics; exosomes high-altitude adaptation; high-altitude pulmonary hypertension; hypobaric hypoxia; epigenetics; exosomes
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MDPI and ACS Style

Padmasekar, M.; Savai, R.; Seeger, W.; Pullamsetti, S.S. Exposomes to Exosomes: Exosomes as Tools to Study Epigenetic Adaptive Mechanisms in High-Altitude Humans. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 8280. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18168280

AMA Style

Padmasekar M, Savai R, Seeger W, Pullamsetti SS. Exposomes to Exosomes: Exosomes as Tools to Study Epigenetic Adaptive Mechanisms in High-Altitude Humans. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(16):8280. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18168280

Chicago/Turabian Style

Padmasekar, Manju, Rajkumar Savai, Werner Seeger, and Soni Savai Pullamsetti. 2021. "Exposomes to Exosomes: Exosomes as Tools to Study Epigenetic Adaptive Mechanisms in High-Altitude Humans" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 16: 8280. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18168280

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