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Open AccessArticle

Evaluating the Psychometric Properties of a Scale to Measure Perceived External and Internal Faces of Controlling Teaching among Students in Physical Education

1
Health Research Centre, University of Almeria, 04120 Almeria, Spain
2
Department of Physical Education and Sport, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain
3
EFYPAF “Physical Education and Physical Activity Promotion” Research Group, Faculty of Social and Human Sciences, University of Zaragoza, 44002 Teruel, Spain
4
EFYPAF “Physical Education and Physical Activity Promotion” Research Group, Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Zaragoza, 22001 Huesca, Spain
5
Institute of Sport Sciences and Physiotherapy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tartu, Ujula 4 Str., 51008 Tartu, Estonia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(1), 298; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18010298
Received: 14 November 2020 / Revised: 27 December 2020 / Accepted: 30 December 2020 / Published: 3 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances in Self-Determination Theory in Physical Education)
There are no validated instruments to date that have examined the students’ perceptions of externally and internally controlling teaching practices in physical education (PE). Grounded in self-determination theory, the objective of this research was to provide validity and reliability evidence of the Controlling Teaching Scale for Physical Education (CTS-PE) to assess the external and internal faces of controlling teaching in PE through two sequential studies. In Study 1 (n = 241 students), an exploratory factor analysis revealed an eight-item two-factor solution (four items per factor). In Study 2 (n = 968 students), a confirmatory factor analysis supported the eight-item two-factor correlated model (i.e., externally and internally controlling teaching) that was invariant across gender. Reliability coefficients indicated an acceptable level of reliability for the two factors of the CTS-PE. A structural equation modelling showed that externally and internally controlling teaching behaviours positively predicted need frustration, and negatively need satisfaction. The current study gathered evidence to consider the CTS-PE as a valid and reliable instrument to assess students’ perceptions of PE teachers’ externally and internally controlling teaching behaviours. The CTS-PE provides PE teachers with deeper insights into the negative psychological experiences associated with externally and internally controlling teaching behaviours in PE. View Full-Text
Keywords: motivating style; need-thwarting behaviours; controlling behaviour; externally controlling; internally controlling; basic psychological needs motivating style; need-thwarting behaviours; controlling behaviour; externally controlling; internally controlling; basic psychological needs
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MDPI and ACS Style

Burgueño, R.; Abós, Á.; García-González, L.; Tilga, H.; Sevil-Serrano, J. Evaluating the Psychometric Properties of a Scale to Measure Perceived External and Internal Faces of Controlling Teaching among Students in Physical Education. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 298. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18010298

AMA Style

Burgueño R, Abós Á, García-González L, Tilga H, Sevil-Serrano J. Evaluating the Psychometric Properties of a Scale to Measure Perceived External and Internal Faces of Controlling Teaching among Students in Physical Education. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(1):298. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18010298

Chicago/Turabian Style

Burgueño, Rafael; Abós, Ángel; García-González, Luis; Tilga, Henri; Sevil-Serrano, Javier. 2021. "Evaluating the Psychometric Properties of a Scale to Measure Perceived External and Internal Faces of Controlling Teaching among Students in Physical Education" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 18, no. 1: 298. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18010298

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