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Article

Gender Differences in Psychological Symptoms and Psychotherapeutic Processes in Japanese Children

1
Kokoro Research Center, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan
2
Kokoro Research Center, Uehiro Uehiro Research Division, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan
3
Graduate School of Education, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan
4
Graduate School of Human and Environmental Studies, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(23), 9113; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17239113
Received: 12 October 2020 / Revised: 2 December 2020 / Accepted: 4 December 2020 / Published: 6 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gender Differences in Emotions, Cognition, and Behavior)
Gender differences have been documented in the prevalence of psychological symptoms. Tic disorders and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are more common in male clinical samples, while selective mutism and trichotillomania are more common in female clinical samples. In a review of 84 published case studies of Japanese children, this study explored gender differences in the prevalence of four categories of symptoms and expressions made in therapy for tics, selective mutism, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and trichotillomania. Case studies were evaluated using both qualitative coding and statistical analysis. The findings were mostly consistent with epidemiological surveys and empirical research on adults. The gender differences in symptom prevalence and their expression could be summarized as differences in more direct aggression for boys versus indirect aggression for girls. The objective and progress in the therapy were to control impulsive energy for boys and to express energy for girls. View Full-Text
Keywords: gender differences; tic disorder; selective mutism; autism spectrum disorder; trichotillomania; aggression gender differences; tic disorder; selective mutism; autism spectrum disorder; trichotillomania; aggression
MDPI and ACS Style

Kawai, T.; Suzuki, Y.; Hatanaka, C.; Konakawa, H.; Tanaka, Y.; Uchida, A. Gender Differences in Psychological Symptoms and Psychotherapeutic Processes in Japanese Children. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 9113. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17239113

AMA Style

Kawai T, Suzuki Y, Hatanaka C, Konakawa H, Tanaka Y, Uchida A. Gender Differences in Psychological Symptoms and Psychotherapeutic Processes in Japanese Children. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(23):9113. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17239113

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kawai, Toshio, Yuka Suzuki, Chihiro Hatanaka, Hisae Konakawa, Yasuhiro Tanaka, and Aya Uchida. 2020. "Gender Differences in Psychological Symptoms and Psychotherapeutic Processes in Japanese Children" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 23: 9113. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17239113

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