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Article

Fine Particulate Matter and Gaseous Compounds in Kitchens and Outdoor Air of Different Dwellings

1
Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies (CESAM), Department of Environment, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
2
Geobiosciences, Geotechnologies and Geoengineering Research Centre (GeoBioTec), Department of Geosciences, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
3
Centre for Nuclear Sciences and Technologies (C2TN), Instituto Superior Técnico, University of Lisbon, Estrada Nacional 10, 2695-066 Bobadela, Portugal
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(14), 5256; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17145256
Received: 19 June 2020 / Revised: 13 July 2020 / Accepted: 16 July 2020 / Published: 21 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medical Geology)
Passive diffusion tubes for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and carbonyls and low volume particulate matter (PM2.5) samplers were used simultaneously in kitchens and outdoor air of four dwellings. PM2.5 filters were analysed for their carbonaceous content (organic and elemental carbon, OC and EC) by a thermo-optical technique and for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) and plasticisers by GC-MS. The morphology and chemical composition of selected PM2.5 samples were characterised by SEM-EDS. The mean indoor PM2.5 concentrations ranged from 14 µg m−3 to 30 µg m−3, while the outdoor levels varied from 18 µg m−3 to 30 µg m−3. Total carbon represented up to 40% of the PM2.5 mass. In general, the indoor OC/EC ratios were higher than the outdoor values. Indoor-to-outdoor ratios higher than 1 were observed for VOCs, carbonyls and plasticisers. PAH levels were much higher in the outdoor air. The particulate material was mainly composed of soot aggregates, fly ashes and mineral particles. The hazard quotients associated with VOC inhalation suggested a low probability of non-cancer effects, while the cancer risk was found to be low, but not negligible. Residential exposure to PAHs was dominated by benzo[a]pyrene and has shown to pose an insignificant cancer risk. View Full-Text
Keywords: dwellings; indoor/outdoor; VOCs; carbonyls; PM2.5; OC/EC; morphology; PAHs dwellings; indoor/outdoor; VOCs; carbonyls; PM2.5; OC/EC; morphology; PAHs
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MDPI and ACS Style

Alves, C.; Vicente, A.; Oliveira, A.R.; Candeias, C.; Vicente, E.; Nunes, T.; Cerqueira, M.; Evtyugina, M.; Rocha, F.; Almeida, S.M. Fine Particulate Matter and Gaseous Compounds in Kitchens and Outdoor Air of Different Dwellings. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 5256. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17145256

AMA Style

Alves C, Vicente A, Oliveira AR, Candeias C, Vicente E, Nunes T, Cerqueira M, Evtyugina M, Rocha F, Almeida SM. Fine Particulate Matter and Gaseous Compounds in Kitchens and Outdoor Air of Different Dwellings. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(14):5256. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17145256

Chicago/Turabian Style

Alves, Célia, Ana Vicente, Ana R. Oliveira, Carla Candeias, Estela Vicente, Teresa Nunes, Mário Cerqueira, Margarita Evtyugina, Fernando Rocha, and Susana M. Almeida. 2020. "Fine Particulate Matter and Gaseous Compounds in Kitchens and Outdoor Air of Different Dwellings" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 14: 5256. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17145256

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