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Article

Antimicrobial Efficacy of Fruit Peels Eco-Enzyme against Enterococcus faecalis: An In Vitro Study

1
Department of Restorative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, The National University of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur 50300, Malaysia
2
Department of Family Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, The National University of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur 50300, Malaysia
3
Department of CITRA & Teaching, Faculty of Health Sciences, The National University of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur 50300, Malaysia
4
Division of Restorative Dental Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(14), 5107; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17145107
Received: 17 June 2020 / Revised: 11 July 2020 / Accepted: 13 July 2020 / Published: 15 July 2020
Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), an effective endodontic irrigant against Enterococcus faecalis (EF), is harmful to periapical tissues. Natural pineapple-orange eco-enzymes (M-EE) and papaya eco-enzyme (P-EE) could be potential alternatives. This study aimed to assess the antimicrobial efficacy of M-EE and P-EE at different concentrations and fermentation periods against EF, compared to 2.5% NaOCl. Fermented M-EE and P-EE (3 and 6 months) at various concentrations were mixed with EF in a 96-well plate incubated for 24 h anaerobically. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of M-EE and P-EE were determined via EF growth observation. EF inhibition was quantitatively measured and compared between different irrigants using the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and different fermentation periods using the independent-samples T-test. M-EE and P-EE showed MIC at 50% and MBC at 100% concentrations. There was no significant difference in antimicrobial effect when comparing M-EE and P-EE at 50% and 100% to 2.5% NaOCl. P-EE at 6 months fermentation exhibited higher EF inhibition compared to 3 months at concentrations of 25% (p = 0.017) and 0.78% (p = 0.009). The antimicrobial properties of M-EE and P-EE, at both 100% and 50% concentrations, are comparable to 2.5% NaOCl. They could therefore be potential alternative endodontic irrigants, but further studies are required. View Full-Text
Keywords: eco-enzyme; endodontics; Enterococcus faecalis; fruit peels; root canal irrigants; sodium hypochlorite eco-enzyme; endodontics; Enterococcus faecalis; fruit peels; root canal irrigants; sodium hypochlorite
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mavani, H.A.K.; Tew, I.M.; Wong, L.; Yew, H.Z.; Mahyuddin, A.; Ahmad Ghazali, R.; Pow, E.H.N. Antimicrobial Efficacy of Fruit Peels Eco-Enzyme against Enterococcus faecalis: An In Vitro Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 5107. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17145107

AMA Style

Mavani HAK, Tew IM, Wong L, Yew HZ, Mahyuddin A, Ahmad Ghazali R, Pow EHN. Antimicrobial Efficacy of Fruit Peels Eco-Enzyme against Enterococcus faecalis: An In Vitro Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(14):5107. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17145107

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mavani, Hetal A.K., In M. Tew, Lishen Wong, Hsu Z. Yew, Alida Mahyuddin, Rohi Ahmad Ghazali, and Edmond H.N. Pow. 2020. "Antimicrobial Efficacy of Fruit Peels Eco-Enzyme against Enterococcus faecalis: An In Vitro Study" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 14: 5107. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17145107

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