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Article

Critical Events throughout the Educational Career: The Effect of Grade Retention and Repetition on School-Aged Children’s Well-Being

1
Department of Nursing and Health Sciences, Fulda University of Applied Sciences, 36037 Fulda, Germany
2
Institute of Sociology, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, 06108 Halle (Saale), Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to the work.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(11), 4012; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17114012
Received: 28 February 2020 / Revised: 20 April 2020 / Accepted: 22 April 2020 / Published: 4 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue School Health and Wellbeing)
More than 20% of all school-aged children in Germany experience a grade retention and repetition during the educational career which is likely to affect their well-being as a central element of school success. This study aims at revealing the temporal dynamics of general and school well-being around the event of grade retention (i.e., the year when the decision to repeat a grade is taken) and the subsequent grade repetition (i.e., the repeated school year) during secondary school in Germany. Longitudinal data from the National Educational Panel Study (NEPS) is used on native students attending grades 5 through to 12 (N = 4581 from originally 273 schools). Distributed fixed-effects regressions by gender and school type have been conducted, using satisfaction with school and life as outcomes. Although retention decisions often trigger an immediate decrease in students’ well-being, there arise still benefits from this event in the short-term, middle-term and long-term, though trajectories differ by gender and school type. Overall, it is necessary to promote students´ well-being throughout their educational career, particularly in those critical periods when they face grade retention. Results highlight that tailored programs for both genders and students in different school types should be provided to foster well-being during this phase. View Full-Text
Keywords: well-being dynamics; grade retention and repetition; school-aged children; distributed fixed-effects; National Educational Panel Study (NEPS) well-being dynamics; grade retention and repetition; school-aged children; distributed fixed-effects; National Educational Panel Study (NEPS)
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rathmann, K.; Loter, K.; Vockert, T. Critical Events throughout the Educational Career: The Effect of Grade Retention and Repetition on School-Aged Children’s Well-Being. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 4012. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17114012

AMA Style

Rathmann K, Loter K, Vockert T. Critical Events throughout the Educational Career: The Effect of Grade Retention and Repetition on School-Aged Children’s Well-Being. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(11):4012. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17114012

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rathmann, Katharina, Katharina Loter, and Theres Vockert. 2020. "Critical Events throughout the Educational Career: The Effect of Grade Retention and Repetition on School-Aged Children’s Well-Being" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 11: 4012. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17114012

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