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Article

Analysis of Cyclist’s Drag on the Aero Position Using Numerical Simulations and Analytical Procedures: A Case Study

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Department of Sports, Higher Institute of Educational Sciences of the Douro, 4560-708 Penafiel, Portugal
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Departamento de Desporto e Educação Física, Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, 5300-253 Bragança, Portugal
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Research Center for Sports Health and Human Development, 6201-001 Covilhã, Portugal
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Department of Sports Sciences, University of Beira Interior, 6201-001 Covilhã, Portugal
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School of Health and Caring Sciences, University of West Attica, 12243 Athens, Greece
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Institute of Primary Care, University of Zurich, 8091 Zurich, Switzerland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(10), 3430; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17103430
Received: 13 April 2020 / Revised: 12 May 2020 / Accepted: 13 May 2020 / Published: 14 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sports and Health)
Background: Resistance acting on a cyclist is a major concern among the cycling fraternity. Most of the testing methods require previous training or expensive equipment and time-consuming set-ups. By contrast, analytical procedures are more affordable and numerical simulations are perfect for manipulating and controlling inputs. The aim of this case study was to compare the drag of a cyclist in the aero position as measured using numerical simulation and analytical procedures. Methods: An elite male cyclist (65 kg in mass and 1.72 m in height) volunteered to take part in this research. The cyclist was wearing his competition gear, helmet and bicycle. A three-dimensional model of the bicycle and cyclist in the aero position was obtained to run the numerical simulations. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and a set of analytical procedures were carried out to assess drag, frontal area and drag coefficient, between 1 m/s and 22 m/s, with increments of 1 m/s. The t-test paired samples and linear regression were selected to compare, correlate and assess the methods agreement. Results: No significant differences (t = 2.826; p = 0.275) between CFD and analytical procedures were found. The linear regression showed a very high adjustment for drag (R2 = 0.995; p < 0.001). However, the drag values obtained by the analytical procedures seemed to be overestimated, even though without effect (d = 0.11). Conclusions: These findings suggest that drag might be assessed using both a set of analytical procedures and CFD. View Full-Text
Keywords: cycling; drag; comparison; CFD; analytical procedures cycling; drag; comparison; CFD; analytical procedures
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MDPI and ACS Style

Forte, P.; Marinho, D.A.; Nikolaidis, P.T.; Knechtle, B.; Barbosa, T.M.; Morais, J.E. Analysis of Cyclist’s Drag on the Aero Position Using Numerical Simulations and Analytical Procedures: A Case Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 3430. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17103430

AMA Style

Forte P, Marinho DA, Nikolaidis PT, Knechtle B, Barbosa TM, Morais JE. Analysis of Cyclist’s Drag on the Aero Position Using Numerical Simulations and Analytical Procedures: A Case Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(10):3430. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17103430

Chicago/Turabian Style

Forte, Pedro, Daniel A. Marinho, Pantelis T. Nikolaidis, Beat Knechtle, Tiago M. Barbosa, and Jorge E. Morais 2020. "Analysis of Cyclist’s Drag on the Aero Position Using Numerical Simulations and Analytical Procedures: A Case Study" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 10: 3430. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17103430

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