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Open AccessArticle

An Assessment of Long-Term Physical and Emotional Quality of Life of Persons Injured on 9/11/2001

1
World Trade Center Registry, New York Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, New York, NY 10013, USA
2
Department of Psychology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(6), 1054; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16061054
Received: 15 February 2019 / Revised: 20 March 2019 / Accepted: 21 March 2019 / Published: 23 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Long-Term Health Effects of the 9/11 Disaster)
Fifteen years after the disaster, the World Trade Center Health Registry (Registry) conducted The Health and Quality of Life Survey (HQoL) assessing physical and mental health status among those who reported sustaining an injury on 11 September 2001 compared with non-injured persons. Summary scores derived from the Short Form-12 served as study outcomes. United States (US) population estimates on the Physical Component Score (PCS-12) and Mental Component Score (MCS-12) were compared with scores from the HQoL and were stratified by Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and injury status. Linear regression models were used to estimate the association between both injury severity and PTSD and PCS-12 and MCS-12 scores. Level of injury severity and PTSD history significantly predicted poorer physical health (mean PCS-12). There was no significant difference between injury severity level and mental health (mean MCS-12). Controlling for other factors, having PTSD symptoms after 9/11 predicted a nearly 10-point difference in mean MCS-12 compared with never having PTSD. Injury severity and PTSD showed additive effects on physical and mental health status. Injury on 9/11 and a PTSD history were each associated with long-term decrements in physical health status. Injury did not predict long-term decrements in one’s mental health status. Although it is unknown whether physical wounds of the injury healed, our results suggest that traumatic injuries appear to have a lasting negative effect on perceived physical functioning. View Full-Text
Keywords: injury; physical health; mental health; World Trade Center disaster; Short Form-12 (SF-12); HQoL; 9/11 injury; physical health; mental health; World Trade Center disaster; Short Form-12 (SF-12); HQoL; 9/11
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Brackbill, R.M.; Alper, H.E.; Frazier, P.; Gargano, L.M.; Jacobson, M.H.; Solomon, A. An Assessment of Long-Term Physical and Emotional Quality of Life of Persons Injured on 9/11/2001. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 1054.

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