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Open AccessArticle

Prevalence of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Air-Conditioning Systems in Hospitals, Farms, and Residences

by 1,2, 1,2 and 1,2,3,*
1
Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021, China
2
Ningbo Key Laboratory of Urban Environmental Processes and Pollution Control, Ningbo Urban Environment Observation and Research Station—NUEORS, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315800, China
3
Research Center for Environmental Ecology and Engineering, School of Environmental Ecology and Biological Engineering, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Wuhan 430073, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(5), 683; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16050683
Received: 31 January 2019 / Revised: 19 February 2019 / Accepted: 22 February 2019 / Published: 26 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Science and Engineering)
High-throughput quantitative PCR combined with Illumina sequencing and network analysis were used to characterize the antibiotic resistance gene (ARG) profiles in air-conditioning filters from different environments. In total, 177 ARGs comprising 10 ARG types were determined. The detectable numbers and the relative abundance of ARGs in hospitals and farms were significantly higher than those in city and village residences. Compared to hospitals, farms had a higher level of tetracycline, multidrug, integrase, and macrolide–lincosamide–streptogramin (MLS) B resistance genes but a lower level of beta-lactam resistance genes. The bl3_cpha gene was the most abundant resistance gene subtype in hospital samples with an abundance of 2.01 × 10−4 copies/16S rRNA, while a level of only 5.08 × 10−12 copies/16S rRNA was observed in farm samples. There was no significant difference in bacterial diversity among the hospitals, farms, and residences, and Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum. Network analysis revealed that Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria were possible hosts of the beta-lactam, MLSB, aminoglycoside, multidrug, sulfonamide, and tetracycline resistance genes. The results demonstrate that ARGs exist in indoor environments and that farms and hospitals are important sources. This study provides a useful reference for understanding the distribution patterns and risk management of ARGs in indoor environments. View Full-Text
Keywords: antibiotic resistance genes; air-conditioning system; human health; indoor environment antibiotic resistance genes; air-conditioning system; human health; indoor environment
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MDPI and ACS Style

Li, Y.; Liao, H.; Yao, H. Prevalence of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Air-Conditioning Systems in Hospitals, Farms, and Residences. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 683.

AMA Style

Li Y, Liao H, Yao H. Prevalence of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Air-Conditioning Systems in Hospitals, Farms, and Residences. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2019; 16(5):683.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Li, Yaying; Liao, Hongkai; Yao, Huaiying. 2019. "Prevalence of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Air-Conditioning Systems in Hospitals, Farms, and Residences" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 16, no. 5: 683.

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