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Open AccessArticle

Analyzing the Urban-Rural Vaccination Coverage Disparity through a Fair Decomposition in Zhejiang Province, China

Institute of Immunization and Prevention, Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Hangzhou 310051, China
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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(22), 4575; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16224575
Received: 17 October 2019 / Revised: 16 November 2019 / Accepted: 17 November 2019 / Published: 19 November 2019
Objectives: Exploring determinants underlying disparities in full vaccination coverage (FVC) can contribute to improved immunization interventions. FVC and its risk factors in Zhejiang province have been studied, yet the determinants explaining the rural–urban disparity in FVC have not been studied. This study aimed to disentangle the factors explaining rural–urban disparities in FVC of vaccine doses scheduled during the first year of life in Zhejiang province. Methods: We used data from a vaccination coverage survey among children aged 24–35 months conducted in 2016. The outcome measure was full vaccination status, and the grouping variable was the area of residence. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the FVC and rural–urban residence across the exposure variables. The Fairlie decomposition technique was used to decompose factors contributing to explaining the FVC disparity. Results: There were 847 children included in this study, of which 49.6% lived in a rural area. FVC was 94% in rural areas and 85% in urban areas. A disparity of 9% to the advantage of the rural areas and the exposure variables explained 81.1% of the disparity. Maternal factors explained 49.7% of the explained disparity with education, occupation, and ethnicity being the significant contributors to the explained disparity. Children’s birth order and immigration status contributed somewhat to the explained inequality. Conclusion: There was a significant disparity in FVC in Zhejiang province, a disadvantage to the urban areas. Policy recommendations or health interventions to reduce the inequality should be focused on eliminating poverty and women’s illiteracy, targeted at migrant children or children from minority ethnicities. View Full-Text
Keywords: vaccination; coverage; inequality; decomposition; urban; rural vaccination; coverage; inequality; decomposition; urban; rural
MDPI and ACS Style

Hu, Y.; Wang, Y.; Chen, Y.; Liang, H. Analyzing the Urban-Rural Vaccination Coverage Disparity through a Fair Decomposition in Zhejiang Province, China. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 4575.

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