Next Article in Journal
Can FinTech Development Curb Agricultural Nonpoint Source Pollution?
Next Article in Special Issue
Multi-Dimensional Factors Associated with Illegal Substance Use Among Gay and Bisexual Men in Taiwan
Previous Article in Journal
Walking Green: Developing an Evidence Base for Nature Prescriptions
Previous Article in Special Issue
Addressing the Impact of Interpersonal Violence in Women Who Struggle with Substance Use Through Developmental-Relational Strategies in a Community Program
Open AccessArticle

Effect of Sex on the Association Between Nonmedical Use of Opioids and Sleep Disturbance Among Chinese Adolescents: A Cross-Sectional Study

by Di Xiao 1,2,3, Lan Guo 1, Meijun Zhao 1, Sheng Zhang 1, Wenyan Li 1, Wei-Hong Zhang 2,4,*,† and Ciyong Lu 1,3,*,†
1
Department of Medical Statistics and Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080, China
2
International Centre for Reproductive Health (ICRH), Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Ghent University, 9000 Gent, Belgium
3
Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Food, Nutrition and Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080, China
4
Research Laboratory for Human Reproduction, Faculty of Medicine, Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), 1050 Bruxelles, Belgium
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(22), 4339; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16224339
Received: 16 October 2019 / Revised: 4 November 2019 / Accepted: 5 November 2019 / Published: 7 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sex, Gender and Substance Use)
Sleep disturbance and non-medical prescription opioid use (NMPOU) are currently growing public health concerns, and sex differences may result in differential exposure to frequency of NMPOU or sleep disturbance. This study aimed to explore the association between the frequency of lifetime or past-year NMPOU and sleep disturbance and to evaluate whether there was any sex difference in this association among Chinese adolescents. A cross-sectional study was performed in seven randomly selected Chinese provinces through the 2015 School-Based Chinese Adolescents Health Survey. A total of 159,640 adolescents were invited to participate and among them, 148,687 adolescents’ questionnaires were completed and qualified for this study (response rate: 93.14%). All analyses were performed for boys and girls separately. There were significant sex differences in the prevalence of lifetime or past-year opioid misuse and sleep disturbance (p < 0.05). Among girls, frequent lifetime NMPOU (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.09, 95% CI = 1.80–2.44) and past-year NMPOU (aOR = 2.16, 95% CI = 1.68–2.77) were positively associated with sleep disturbance. Among boys, these associations were also statistically significant, while the magnitudes of associations between frequent lifetime NMPOU or past-year NMPOU and sleep disturbance were greater in girls than those in boys. There is a significant sex difference in the prevalence of lifetime or past-year NMPOU and sleep disturbance. Furthermore, exposure to more frequent lifetime or past-year NMPOU is associated with a greater risk of sleep disturbance, especially among girls. Taking into account the sex difference for lifetime or past-year NMPOU may help to decrease the risk of sleep disturbance. View Full-Text
Keywords: non-medical prescription opioid use; sleep disturbance; sex differences; adolescents non-medical prescription opioid use; sleep disturbance; sex differences; adolescents
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Xiao, D.; Guo, L.; Zhao, M.; Zhang, S.; Li, W.; Zhang, W.-H.; Lu, C. Effect of Sex on the Association Between Nonmedical Use of Opioids and Sleep Disturbance Among Chinese Adolescents: A Cross-Sectional Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 4339.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop